The question is, at first glance, a strange. Love a believer reads the Bible, thinks and discusses its content, a lot knows by heart.
But how did this book have? Is this a book or a collection? Who is her authors? What language is it written in? Such questions are often found in our mail. Let's try to figure it out ...
Who is the author?
When we take into the hands of a book, I first look at the cover - we are interested in the title and authorship. Take the thick volume of the synodal edition. What do you see? "Bible. Books of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. " Here every word needs explanation, except for the word "books." But the author's name does not find on the cover or the title page. Although everyone heard that the Bible is the Word of God, it became, God is her author. But how to understand it?
Purp the page, study the content. We find a lot of interesting things: the Book of Job, the wisdom of Solomonov, the Gospel of Mark ... Immediately understand that the Bible is a meeting of books written by different authors. The Greek word "Bible" just means "books". Most often, the names of their authors are known to us, sometimes - for example, in the case of the book of Job, McCaewic books, books of kingdoms - we do not know who exactly created these texts.
At the same time, we, Christians, are convinced that this is not just ordinary human literature written exclusively thanks to the knowledge, the mind and the talent of a person. All the books of the Holy Scriptures are cornering. Through these books, God himself says. But he does not follow that people - the authors of the biblical books - the kings, the shepherds, military leaders, philosophers, fishermen, doctors, appliances, were just robots that were mechanically writing to the dictation of God. In this sense, the Bible differs from the sacred books of all other religions. Take at least Koran. For Muslims, this is the literal word of Allah, which was dictated by Muhammad, who did not die read and write. As one Muslim Theologian noticed accurately: "Christians have become a man, he became a book."
God undoubtedly affect the authors of biblical books, but they wrote, not feeling themselves just a pencil in God's hand. They used their knowledge, experience, relied on existing book traditions, used turns, close and clear those who were meant by their Scriptures. They can be called authors with full right. Moreover, every book has copyright features. But all of them had the same co-author - God.
The question arises: Is this "Divine component" preserved with numerous translations of biblical books? It is clear that the modern Russian text is not exactly the same thing that was in the scroll written two or three thousand years ago. Here Christians have a definite answer: yes, preserved. The soundness is not only that the ancient authors of the Bible experienced special spiritual states, the immediate impact of God. Since Christians believe that the Church is led by the Holy Spirit, then the translations of the Bible for different languages that the church adopted, are also considered the Corrective, with all the philological differences between the Bible translations from the Greek text - we can be sure this is still the Word of God. Finally, and this is probably the most important thing, God has affected and always acts on those people who read and reads the Holy Scripture.
In addition, in traditional ancient cultures, the meaning of the rewritten text was preserved at all worse than in modern culture with its photocops and scanners. And although there were many people in different places over the rewriting of texts and philological errors could be painted in the manuscript, but the reliable meaning of the texts did not change. Specially change the word of God or insert something from myself to him, except the most extreme heretics, and could not come to mind. If random philological errors distorted the religious meaning of some biblical manuscripts, such texts were immediately rejected by the church.
It is often said that there are many contradictions in the Bible. This is a separate topic. For us now is important. These so-called contradictions prove that the modern text of the Holy Scripture was not distorted. Be at the correspondencers the opportunity to make some fundamental edits or changes - first of all they would smooth these contradictions.
Who is a teacher?
The Bible did not arise immediately, overnight. The books included in her composition were written over a year and a half years, and the creation of these books occurred is no coincidence. It was inextricably linked with the history of the Jewish people - or rather, with the history of the relationship of the chosen people with his God. The Bible consists of two parts. Big (and by volume, and on the duration of the formation) part of the Bible is called the Old Testament. Little is the new Testament.
Usually, people who want to read the Bible for the first time, open it from the first page, with the book of Being - the first book of the Old Testament. Very few continue reading further than several pages. There is a lot of reasons for this, but not least affects what modern person is incomprehensible why it is written. Well, okay - the first chapters of the Book of Being, where it is said about the creation of peace and man, about the paradise, about the fall ... But all the subsequent ... what is it? Detailed narrations about the history of the emergence and life of the Jewish people, long listings, household settings, foggy prophecies ... to the one who is "not in the topic", it is difficult to understand it.
From a Christian point of view, it is possible to understand the meaning of the Old Testament only in the light of the New Testament. Both parts of the Bible talk about one personality - Jesus Christ. However, on the pages of the Old Testament you will not find direct references to Jesus. The Old Testament is written as a prophecy of the New Testament, and the meaning of many Old Testament events is revealed only in it. Therefore, to start reading the Bible is better from the New Testament, with the Gospels. After that, the Old Testament Books will become much clearer. And this is not from neglecting the Old Testament, because without him, in turn, it is impossible to understand the meaning of the New Testament. Such here is a seeming paradox ...
The meaning of the Old Testament is best expressed the apostle Paul, calling him a "conference to Christ" (Gal. 3:24). Antique teacher (namely, it sounds in the Greek word "orphanage") played a completely different role than today. He did not taught anything, but drove a child to school and watched the child to be implicit. In the Old Testament there are many moral commandments, but escape, not even accurately, it is impossible. For salvation, Christ needs, about whose coming is stated in the New Testament. The appointment of the Old Testament with His commandments is to lead a person to the state in which he is able to accept and believe in Christ. By themselves, the Old Testament commandments themselves seem to be a modern man obvious: it is impossible to steal, kill, wish his wife's neighbor, etc. But imagine the moral state in which humanity was located if God himself was forced to command what today seems to be !
Christianity says that sin does not just separate a person from God. This is also a deadly disease. For example, if a person is sick by AIDS, he can take drugs that will support him life and facilitate the state, but they cannot fully heal. It is such an action that the Old Testament commandments are sick with the sin of man. Only Christ comes and gives a person a medicine that heals him.
Who was the "release editor"?
The first complete edition of the Bible in Russian. Synodal translation, 1876
Even people who are unfamiliar with the Scriptures could hear that the Bible is a church book. Sometimes it causes outrage: "Why is this church trying to privatize the Bible that has a general cultural value?" But indignant - do not outraget, and this is true. The Bible arose not in secular salons. Any sacred text is a generation of some religious tradition. The Bible is secondary to the Church. She was given in the church. Metropolitan Surozh Anthony has a very true thought that every Christian community should be able to write the Bible, because the Bible is a description of the living experience of God-edition, which is available to any Christian community. On liturgy, communion of the body and the blood of Christ, we are experiencing what the apostles have experienced at the secret evening. If we assume that the Bible will not become, Christianity will still exist, because the Bible itself is generated by the church - first the Old Testament, and then the New Testament.
Therefore, it is not to be indignant when the church calls the Bible with his property and says that its correct understanding is impossible outside the church. Of course, the Sacred Scripture can be read as a literary or historical monument. But it will be the same as considering the violin of Stradivari in the museum. She is beautiful, old, but as a museum exhibit, the violin does not fulfill its function, does not serve that for what a master created it. By the way, try to perceive the Bible only as a cultural monument began on historical standards relatively recently in the XVIII-XIX centuries.
But the church not only created and kept the Bible. She also formed that in science is called a "biblical canon" - that is, from many different texts that arose in the Christian environment, managed to take away those who are truly corroded. This happened in the IV century, in church cathedrals. According to church teaching, God exhibits her will in the cathedrals. Not only on the basis of his experience, knowledge or especially some addictions solved Christian bishops, what texts to consider the sacred, and which are not. At the time of making a decision, the Holy Spirit was affected. Of course, for an unbeliever person, this is not an argument. But to know that the biblical canon could occur only in the context of the life of the Church, you need at least from the general considerations.
And what are the rejected texts? Their common name is apocryphal. Not all of them are rejected for any distortion of the very essence of Christianity. There are quite pious and even authoritative texts. Just these Scriptures are human. Only Human. Other apocrypha church consciousness rejected due to the fact that they draw such an image of Christ, who has nothing to do with the Christian faith. For example, Christ, cruel and petty blowjobs. Christ, making fantastic miracles not from mercy and love, but just the effect of the sake ... Of course, the church could not accept this. In addition, both historical and philological analysis of apocrypha shows that for the most part they have been created after the I century on the basis of previously written canonical texts.
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You can look at the Bible in different ways: as on mythology or an ancient monument of literature, as a collection of wisdom or the history of the development of morality, morality and universal values. But the paradox of the Bible is that the look at her, the attitude towards it is not determined by either literary nor the historical advantages of this book, nor the level of education, nor even the one degree of morality possesses its reader. The attitude towards the Bible is the attitude towards that it testifies to Jesus Christ. Christians believe that he is God who became a man for the save people from sin. And he did not write any books. He came to the people himself. There was a time when Christianity existed without a Bible, but without Christ it could not and could not exist. The purpose of life in the church is not the connection with the Bible, but with Christ. And if we understand it, the Bible can become a genuine detector for us.
The books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew and the Aramaic Languages close to him (there is an assumption that Christ was talked to the Aramaic). The most ancient, important and accurate translation of the Old Testament was made in the 111 century to R. H., when, according to the decree of the Egyptian king, Ptolemy II Philadelph was transferred to the Bible to Greek. According to legend, the 72 translator invited from Palestine was performed. Therefore, the first translation of the Old Testament with Jewish to Greek was later called the Septuagint ("Translation of Seventy" - Lat.).
The language of all the books of the New Testament is Greek, although their authors were Jews. The fact is that from the III century to R. H., when Alexander Macedonsky's conquest was held, Greek was the "international" language of the Eastern Mediterranean. By the time of the Nativity of Christ, almost all "civilized" owned Rome, but the Greek language did not pass his position. And if the people of the eastern part of the Roman Empire wanted to understand each other, they did not communicate in Latin, but in Greek. Therefore, students of Christ, who suffered the "good news" (Gospel - Greek.) On salvation in all the ends of the empire, preached and wrote on Greek.
By the time, in Constantine, the Roman Empire adopted Christianity, the new covenant was partially translated into some languages of the ancient world: Latin, Syrian, Coptic (Egyptian). In 405, Ieronim Stridonsky finished his work on the translation of the entire Bible to Latin. This translation was called "Vulgate" (publicly available - lat.). In the XVI century, the Roman Catholic Church recognized him as official and mandatory for all Catholics.
In the second half of the 9th century, the Kirill and Methodius brothers created a Slavic alphabet specifically for the translation of the Bible, and then transferred all the sacred writings to the language of the Slavs. Together with the baptism of Russia accepted this translation of the Bible. The need to translate the Bible to the spoken language began to be felt only in XVIII, and such work began in the XIX century. Finally, in 1876, the Russian Orthodox Church approved and released this translation, called "synodal" and still remaining, of course, is the best. If you open almost any publication of the Bible, then on the first page you will see the phrase "Synodal Translation". It uses different Christian confessions, but the text of the Bible itself in the publications, where such a phrase is printed, everywhere the same and is a kind of "quality mark" of the Russian publications of the Bible.
How many books in the Bible
In the New Testament 27 books. This number is constantly, it is recognized by all Christian denominations. The number of books of the Old Testament ranges from 39 to 50. The fact is that the controversial eleven books are not preserved in Jewish language, but exist only in Greek, however, the translation of this very ancient - Septuaginta. The Orthodox and Catholic Church include them in the Bible, calling non-canonic, the Catholics are called secretonic. Canon is a list of sacred books that are recognized by the church with genuine. But in this case, the word "non-canonical" does not mean "fake", simply these books are not preserved in Jewish language and the church is ambiguous and is somewhat striking about their coronaryness.
Where did the name "Bible"?
Approximately 20 km north of Beirut's city on the Mediterranean coast is a small town of Djibel (now Arabic, and in the past Phoenician). Jews called this port city - Geval, and Greeks - Biblos. The Phoenicians were first-class merchants - intermediaries between Greece and Egypt. Through the port of Biblos, Egyptian papyrus was delivered to Greece. Over time, the name of the Phoenician port has acquired a none value and began to designate a book in Greek. Thus, the word "biblos" (or "biblilation") translates as a "book". The multiple number from this word - the Bible is always written with a capital letter, passed in this form in all new European languages and is used only in relation to the Holy Scriptures of Christians.
The first manuscripts of the Bible
The Bible reached us in the form of manuscripts III century. to R. Kh. - XII century. According to R. X. The most ancient found text of the Old Testament belongs to about 200 g. B. X. This is decalog, that is, the Ten commandments of Moiseeva law. For a long time, he was considered almost the only proof of the ancient origin of the Bible, because it was further a giant temporary gap and almost all of the following well-known science manuscripts of the Old Testament were given by the VIII century by R. Kh. But in 1947 in Palestine on the Dead Sea coast in the town Cumran found manuscripts of the Old Testament, which belong to the II century. to R. H. - I century. According to R. Kh. Most of them are identical to the modern text.
To date, the oldest manuscript of the New Testament is a piece of papyrus with a palm with a fragment of the Gospel of John. It was found in Egypt and dates from about 125 year. It turns out that this manuscript is only three decades younger than the original, because according to scientists John theologian, one of the twelve apostles Jesus Christ, wrote his gospel in the late 90s of the I century. For comparison: the manuscripts of Homer and the antique authors for several centuries will take away from the time of writing the books themselves.
Photo holy. Sergius Novozhilov
Bible: download or read online
The Bible is a book book. Why is the sacred Scripture so called? How did the Bible be one of the most readable ordinary and sacred texts on the planet? Does the Bible really are the cornea text? What place in the Bible is given to the Old Testament and, why do Christians read it?
What is the Bible?
Sacred Scripture , or Bible , Call a collection of books written by the prophets and apostles, as we believe, on the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. The word "Bible" - Greek, means - "Books". The main topic of the Holy Scripture is the salvation of mankind Messia, which was embodied by the Son of God's Lord Jesus Christ. IN Old Testament It is said about salvation in the form of pregnursts and prophecies about the Messiah and the Kingdom of God. IN New Testament The very exercise of our salvation through the incarnation, the life and teachings of the Godrifer, captured by his godfather and resurrection. By the time of his writing, the sacred books are divided into Old Testament and New Testament. Of these, the first contains the fact that the Lord has opened people through the sounds of the Savior to the Earth, and the second is that the Lord Savior and His Apostles himself taught on Earth.
About the Holy Scripture
We believe that the prophets and apostles wrote not in their human understanding, but by inspiration from God. He cleared their souls, enlightened their mind and opened the unavailable natural knowledge of the mystery, including the future. Therefore, their scriptures are called award. "Never prophecy has not been pronounced by the Will of Human, but His Holy God's saints, being driven by the Holy Spirit" (2 Pet. 1:21), testifies to the Holy Apostle Peter. And the Apostle Paul calls the Scriptures of the Correspondence: "All the Scriptures of Bogovanny" (2 Tim 3:16). The image of a divine revelation prophets can be represented by the example of Moses and Aaron. Kosonaya Moses God gave the mediators of his brother Aaron. For the bewilderment of Moses, as he can argue to the people of God, being tie-speaking, the Lord said: "You" [Moses] "You will" [Aaron] "talk and impose words (mine) in his mouth, and I will be with your mouth and With the mouth of him and I will teach you what to do; And he will say instead of you to the people; So, he will be your mouth, and you will be he instead of God "(Ex. 4: 15-16). Believing the Bible books, it is important to remember what the Bible is the book of the Church. According to the plan of God, people are designed to save not alone, but in society, which leads and in which the Lord lives. This society is called the Church. Historically, the church is divided into Old Testament, to which he belonged to the Jewish people, and for the New Testament, to which Orthodox Christians belong. The New Testament Church inherited the spiritual wealth of Old Testament - the Word of God. The church not only retained the letter of God, but possesses and its correct understanding. This is due to the fact that the Holy Spirit, who spoke through the prophets and the apostles, continues to live in the church and lead it. Therefore, the church gives us true leadership, how to use it with written wealth: that it is more important and relevant, and what has only historical importance and not applicable in the New Testament.
Brief information about the most important translations of the Scriptures
1. Greek translation of seventy interpretation (septuaginta). The closest to the original text of the Holy Scripture of the Old Testament - Alexandrian translation, known as Greek Translation of seventy intercultures. He was launched by the will of the Egyptian king Ptolerea Philadelph in 271 to R.Kh. Wishing to have the sacred books of the Jewish law in his library, this inquisitive sovereign commanded his librarian Dimitria to acquire the acquisition of these books and the translation of them to the well-known Greek language. From each Israeli knee, six most capable people were elected and sent to Alexandria with an accurate copy of the Jewish Bible. Translators were placed on the island of Faros, near Alexandria, and finished the translation for a short time. The Orthodox Church from the Apostolic Time enjoys sacred books for the translation of the seventy.
2. Latin translation, vulgate. Until the fourth century, our era existed several Latin Bible translations, among which the so-called ancient typical, made in the text of the seventy, enjoyed the greatest popularity for clarity and special proximity to the sacred text. But after the Blessed Jerome, one of the scientists of the Fathers of the Church of the IV century, published his translation of the Holy Scriptures in Latin, made by him in the Jewish script, the Western Church of Little Low to leave the ancient Italian translation in favor of the translation of Jerome. In the XVI century, the Triedent Cathedral, the translation of the Jerome was introduced into the universal use in the rimocatolic church under the name of Vulgates, which literally means "commonly used translation".
3. The Slavic translation of the Bible is made in the text of the seventy of the Tolls of the Holy Solong Brothers Kirill and Methodius in the middle of the 9th century on the R.X., during their apostolic works in the Slavic lands. When Moravian Prince Rostislav, displeased by German missionaries, asked the Byzantine Emperor Mikhail to send to Moravia of the capable mentors of the faith of Christ, Emperor Mikhail sent the great matter of Saints Kirill and Methodius, who had a thoroughly knew the Slavic language and began to translate the Sacred Scriptures to this language in Greece. On the way to Slavic lands, the holy brothers stayed for some time in Bulgaria, which was also enlightened by them, and here they had a lot over the transfer of sacred books. They continued their translation in Moravia, where they arrived around 863. He was over after the death of Cyril Methodius in Pannonia, under the auspices of a pious prince of the cocelter, to which he retired due to the emergence of civil engineers in Moravia. With the adoption of Christianity with the Holy Prince Vladimir (988), the Slavic Bible translated by Saint Cyril and Methodius was transferred to Russia.
4. Russian translation. When, over time, the Slavic language began to differ significantly from Russian, for many, the reading of the Holy Scripture was difficult. As a result, the translation of books to modern Russian was taken. First, by decree of Emperor Alexander I, and on the blessing of Holy Synod, a new covenant was published in 1815 for funds from the Russian biblical society. From the Old Testament Books, only the Psalter was translated - as the most commonly used in Orthodox worship. Then, in the reign of Alexander II, after a new, more accurate publication of the New Testament in 1860, there was a printed publication of the state-owned books of the Old Testament in Russian translation in 1868. Next year, His Holiness Synod blessed the publication of historical Old Testament books, and in 1872 - teachers. Meanwhile, the Russian translations of individual sacred books of the Old Testament began to be printed in spiritual magazines. So the full edition of the Bible in Russian appeared in 1877. Not everyone supported the emergence of Russian translation, preferring church-Slavic. For Russian translation, Saint Tikhon Zadonsky, Metropolitan Filaret Moscow, later - Saint Feofan, Saint Patriarch Tikhon and other outstanding archparsters of the Russian Orthodox Church.
5. Other Bible translations. In French, the Bible was first translated into 1560 by Peter Waldom. The first Bible translation into German appeared in 1460. Martin Luther in 1522-1532 again translated the Bible into German. In English, the first translation of the Bible made the trouble is a venerable, who lived in the first half of the 6th century. Modern English translation was made at the King Jacob in 1603 and published in 1611. In Russia, the Bible was translated into many languages of small nations. So, Metropolitan Innokenti translated her to Aleutian language, Kazan Academy - to Tatar and others. Most succeeded in translations and dissemination of the Bible in different languages British and American biblical societies. Now the Bible has been translated by more than 1200 languages. It is also necessary to say that every translation has its advantages and disadvantages. Transfers seeking to literally transfer the content of the original, suffer from heavyweight and difficulty for understanding. On the other hand, transfers seeking to convey only the general meaning of the Bible in the most understandable and publicly available form, often suffer inaccuracy. The Russian synodal translation avoids both extremes and combines the maximum proximity to the sense of the original with the ease of the language.
Old Testament Books were originally written in Jewish. Latest books of the days of the Babylonian captivity have many Assyrian and Babylonian words and speech revolutions. And the books written during Greek dominion (non-canonical books) were written in Greek, the third book of the Ezra - in Latin. The books of the Holy Scriptures came out of the hands of the Holy Writers in appearance not as we see them now. Initially, they were written on parchment or by papyrus (which was made of stalks growing in Egypt and Palestine plants) cane (pointed reed stick) and ink. As a matter of fact, not a book, but the Charter on a long parchment or papyrus scroll, which had a look of a long tape and wrapped on a tree. Usually, the scrolls were written on the one hand. Subsequently, parchment or papiral tapes, instead of gluing them into the tape scrolls, began to be sewed into books for ease of use. The text in the ancient scrolls was written in the same large capital letters. Each letter was written separately, but the words one from the other was not separated. The whole line was like one word. The reads himself had to divide the line for words and, of course, sometimes did it wrong. There were also no punctuation and stress signs in ancient manuscripts. And in Hebrew, vowel letters were also not written - only consonants.
The division of words in the books introduced the Deacon of the Alexandria Church of Evolly in the Vicon. So, gradually the Bible acquired its modern appearance. With the modern division of the Bible on the heads and poems, reading the sacred books and the search for the necessary places has become a simple matter.
The sacred books in the modern completeness appeared not immediately. Time from Moses (1550 years to R.Kh.) to Samuel (1050 years before R.Kh.) can be called the first period of the formation of the Holy Scriptures. Moisy Moses, who recorded his revelations, laws and narrations, gave the following command of the Levitis, wearing the ark of the covenant of the Lord: "Take this book of the law and put it ones for the ark of the Testament of the Lord God of God" (Dev. 31:26). Subsequent sacred writers continued to attribute their creations to the pentateuch of Moses with the command to keep them there, where it was stored, - as it were in one book.
Old Testament Sacred Scripture contains the following books:
one. Books of the Prophet Moses , or Torah (containing the foundations of the Old Testament Faith): Genesis, Exodus, Levit, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
2. History books : The book of Joshua, the book of judges, the book Ruth, the books of the kingdoms: the first, second, third and fourth, books Paralympomenon: the first and second, the first book of the ezen, the book of Neemia, the book Esther.
3. Teaching books (Custom content): Book of Job, Psalter, Book Proverb Solomon, Book Ecclesiast, song book song.
four. Prophetic books (predominantly prophetic content): Book of the Prophet Isaiah, the book of the Prophet Jeremiah, the book of the Prophet Ezekiel, the book of the Prophet Daniel, twelve books "Small" Prophets: Osi, Ioil, Amosa, Avdia, Iona, Mihea, Nauma, Avvakum, Sofony, Aggeya, Zechariah And Malachi.
5. In addition to these books of the Old Testament list, there are still nine of the following books in the Bible, referred to "Non-canonical" : Tovit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, the book of Jesus, Son Syrahov, the second and third books of the ezra, three Maccaewic books. So they are called because they were written after the list was completed (canon) of the Holy Books. Some modern editions of the Bible of these "non-canonical" books do not have, in the Russian Bible they are. The above names of the sacred books are taken from the Greek translation of seventy intercurses. In the Bible in Jewish language and in some modern translations of the Bible, several Old Testament books are other names.
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The word Gospel means "good news", or - "Pleasant, joyful, good news." This name is called the first four books of the New Testament, who tell about the life and teaching of the embodied son of God, gentlemen Jesus Christ, - about all that he did to establish righteous life on earth and save us, sinful people.
The time of writing each of the sacred books of the New Testament cannot be determined with unconditional accuracy, but it is completely undoubtedly that they were all written in the second half of the I century. The first of the New Testament books were written by the Messages of the Holy Apostles, caused by the need for approval in the faith of recently founded Christian communities; But soon the need for the systematic presentation of the earthly life of the Lord Jesus Christ and his teachings. For a number of considerations, it is possible to conclude that the Gospel of Matthew is written before everyone and no later than 50-60. on R.Kh. The Gospel of Mark and Luke is written a little later, but at least earlier than the destruction of Jerusalem, that is, up to 70 years old on R.H., and the evangelist John theologian wrote his gospel later, at the end of the first century, being in deep old age As some suggest about 96 years. A somewhat used to be written by the apocalypse. The Book of Acts is written shortly after the Gospel of Luke, because, as can be seen from the preface to it, it serves as a continuation.
All four gospels according to the life and teaching of Christ the Savior, about his wonders, the crusst suffering, death and burial, his glorious resurrection from the dead and ascension to the sky. Mutually complementing and explaining each other, they constitute a single whole book that does not have any contradictions and disagreements in the most important and main.
The usual symbol for the four Gospels serves the mysterious chariot, which the Prophet Ezekiel was seen at the Khovar River (Iz. 1: 1-28) and which consisted of four creatures that resembled by the human, lion, calf and eagle. These creatures taken separately made emblems for evangelists. Christian art, starting with the V century, depicts Matthew with a man or angel, brand with Lvom, Luka with Taurus, John with an eagle.
In addition to our four Gospels, up to 50 other writings were known in the first centuries, who also called themselves "Gospels" and attributed to themselves apostolic origin. The church attributed them to the list of "apocryphic" - that is, unreliable, rejected books. These books contain distorted and dubious narratives. Such apocryphal gospels include the "Primevogenia Jacob", "History of Joseph Carpenter", "Gospel of Foma", "Gospel of Nicodem" and others. In them, by the way, the legends referred to the childhood of the Lord Jesus Christ were first recorded.
Of the four Gospels, the contents of the first three - from Matthew , Mark. и Luki. - largely coincides, close to each other both by the narrative material and in the form of the presentation. The fourth gospel - from John In this regard, it is a mansion, significantly different from the first three, as the material outlined in it and the style itself and the form of presentation. In this regard, the first three gospels are called synoptic, from the Greek word "synopsis", which means "presentation in one general image." The synoptic gospels narrate almost exclusively about the activities of the Lord Jesus Christ in Galilee, and Evangelist John - in Judea. The weather forecasters are told mainly about miracles, parables and external events in the life of the Lord, the evangelist John is arguing about his deepest sense, leads to the speech of the Lord about the sublime objects of faith. With all the difference between the gospels, there are no internal contradictions in them. Thus, weather forecasters and John complement each other and only in their totality give the one-piece image of Christ, how he will be perceived and preached by the Church.
Gospel from Matthew
The evangelist Matthew, who also called the name of Levi, was among the 12 apostles of Christ. Before his calling to the apostolic ministry, he was Mytarem, that is, the tax collector, and, as such, of course, unlosely, with his compatriots - the Jews, who despised and hate ones, for serving the wrong enslavers of their people and oppressed their people by charging the filters, and In his quest for profit, they often took a lot more than it follows. Matthewing about his vocation Matthew tells in the 9th chapter of its gospel (Matt. 9: 9-13), calling himself the name of Matthew, while the evangelists Mark and Luka, the story about the same, referred to him by Leviem. Jews had several names in the custom. Touched to the depths of the soul by the grace of the Lord who did not be thickened by him, despite the general contempt for the Jews and especially the spiritual leaders of the Jewish people, scribes and Pharisees, Matthewly perceived the doctrine of Christ and especially deeply I thought his superiority over the Pharisee legends and views that wearing the press righteousness, self-conception and contempt for sinners. That is why he in such details leads a strong accurate speech of the Lord against Nizhnikov and Pharisees - hypocrites, which we find in the chapter 23 of his Gospel (Matt. 23). It must be assumed that for the same reason, he especially closely took the matter of salvation to the heart of his native Jewish people, so impregnated by the time false concepts and Pharisees, and therefore his gospel was written mainly for the Jews. There is reason to assume that it was originally written in Jewish language and only a few later, maybe by the same Matthew, translated into Greek.
Having written your gospel for the Jews, Matthew puts its main goal to prove to them that Jesus Christ is that the Messiah, which was predicted by the Old Testament prophets, that the Old Testament Revelation, darkened by the scribes and Pharisees, is understandable only in Christianity and perceives his perfect meaning. Therefore, he starts his gospel by the genealogy of Jesus Christ, wanting to show his origin from David and Abraham, and makes a huge number of references to the Old Testament to prove the execution of the Old Testament prophecies on it. The appointment of the first gospel for the Jews is seen from the fact that Matthew, mentioning the Jewish customs, does not consider it necessary to explain their meaning and meaning how other evangelists do. Equally leaves without explanation and some Aramaic words used in Palestine. Matthew for a long time and preached in Palestine. Then he retired to sermons to other countries and graduated from his life with a martyr's death in Ethiopia.
Gospel from Mark.
The evangelist Mark wore another name John. By origin, he was also Judea, but was not among the 12 apostles. Therefore, he could not be a constant companion and a listener of the Lord, which Matthew was. He wrote his gospel from words and under the leadership of the apostle Peter. He himself, in all likelihood, was an eyewitness only the last days of the earthly life of the Lord. Only in one Gospel from Mark tells about some young man who, when the Lord was taken into custody in the Gefseiman Garden, followed him, wrapped around the naked body in the bedspread, and the warriors grabbed him, but he, leaving the bedspread, ran nakedly from They (MK 14: 51-52). In this young man, an ancient legend sees the author of the second gospel - Mark. His mother Maria is mentioned in the Book of Acts as one of the wives, the most devoted faith of Christ. In her house in Jerusalem, believers were going for prayer. Mark subsequently participates in the first journey of the Apostle Paul along with his other satellite Varnava, to whom he had a nephew for a mother. He was at the Apostle Paul in Rome, from where the message is written to Colossians. Further, as you can see, Mark became a companion and an employee of the apostle Peter, which is confirmed by the words of the Apostle Peter in his first Cathedral Message, where he writes: "Welcomes you selected, like you, Church in Babylon and Mark, My Son" (1 Pet. 5:13, here Babylon, probably, allegorizing name of Rome).
Icon Saint Mark Evangelist. First half of the XVII century
Before his departure, he again calls for the apostle Paul, who writes Timothy: "Mark take ... with him, for I need it to serve" (2 Tim 4:11). According to legend, the apostle Peter put Mark's first bishop of the Alexandrian Church, and Mark martyrs graduated from his life in Alexandria. According to the testimony of the father, the bishop of the Ierapol, as well as the Iustina of Philosopher and Iriney Lyon, Mark wrote his gospel from the words of the Apostle Peter. Justin even directly calls his "memorable entries of Peter." Clement Alexandrian claims that the Gospel of Mark is in essence the recording of the oral preaching of the Apostle Peter, which Mark made at the request of Christians who lived in Rome. The content itself of the Gospel of Mark indicates that it is intended for Christians from the pagans. It speaks very little about attacking the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ to the Old Testament and is very little referenced to the Old Testament Holy Books. At the same time, we encounter Latin words in it, such as, for example, Speculator and others. Even the Nagorno sermon, as explaining the superiority of the New Testament law in front of the Old Testament, is skipped. But the main attention Mark draws to give in his gospel a strong bright story about the wonders of Christ, emphasizing these royal grandeur and the omnipotence of the Lord. In his gospel, Jesus is not the "son of David", like Matthew, and the Son of God, Vladyka and the Lord, the king of the Universe.
Gospel from Luke
Ancient historian Euses Kaesarian says that Luke took place from Antioch, and therefore it is believed that Luka was, in its origin, a pagan or the so-called "prene", that is, a pagan
Judaism. According to his classes, he was a doctor, which is seen from the message of the Apostle Paul to Colossians. The church legend sticks out to this and the fact that he was also a painter. From the fact that in his gospel contains the instructions of the Lord 70 students set forth with all the details make a conclusion that he belonged to the number of 70 students of Christ
Martyr death in Ahai. His holy relics under the Emperor Constance (in the middle of the IV century) were transferred from there to Constantinople along with the relics of the apostle Andrei First-Called. As can be seen from the preface of the Third Gospel, Luke wrote it at the request of one noble husband, the "Honorable" Feofila who lived in Antioch, for whom he wrote the book of Acts of Apostolic, who serves as a continuation of the evangelical narration (see Lux. 1: 1 -4; Acts 1: 1-2). At the same time, he used not only the narratives of eyewitnesses to the ministry of the Lord, but also some of the already existing written records about the life and teaching of the Lord. According to his own words, these written records were subjected to them by the most careful study, and therefore its gospel is characterized by special accuracy in determining the time and place of events and a strict chronological sequence.
On Luke, the influence of the Apostle Paul, the satellite and the employee of which was the evangelist of Luka, obviously affected the gospel. As the "apostle pagans" Paul tried to fully reveal the great truth that the Messiah - Christ came to Earth not for Jews only, but also for the pagans and that he is the Savior of all over the world, all people. In connection with this main thought, which is clearly spent throughout his narrative, the third gospel, the genealogy of Jesus Christ, has been brought to the dealer of all mankind of Adam and to God himself to emphasize its importance for the whole human race (see Lux. 3: 23-38 ).
The time and place of writing the gospel of Luke can be determined, guided by the consideration that it was written earlier than the books of the Affostolic, which makes it a continuation (see Dean 1: 1). The book of the acts ends with a description of the two-year stay of the Apostle Paul in Rome (see Dean. 28:30). It was about 63 years old on R.Kh. Consequently, the gospel of Luke is written no later than this time and must be assumed in Rome.
Gospel from John
Evangelist John Theologian was a beloved student of Christ. He was the son of the Galilee Fisherman of the Zauli and Solomia. The heads were, apparently, a wealthy person, as he had workers, was, apparently, not a unique member of the Jewish society, for his son John had a familiarity with the high priest. His mother Solomia is mentioned among the wives who served the Lord with their property. Evangelist John first was a student of John the Baptist. Having heard his testimony of Christ, as about the Lamb of God, taking over the sins of the world, he immediately followed Christ (see in. 1: 35-40). He became a permanent student of the Lord, however, a little later, after the wonderful catch of fish on the Gennisretsky (Galilean) Lake, when the Lord himself called him along with his brother Jacob. Together with Peter and his brother Jacob, he was honored with a special proximity to the MS Du, being with him in the most important and solemn moments of his earthly life. This love of the Lord has affected him and in the fact that the Lord, hanging on the cross, instructed him his preching mother, saying to him: "Sea Mother Your!" (See In. 19:27).
John traveled to Jerusalem through Samaria (see Lux. 9:54). For this, he and his brother Jacob received from the Lord nickname "Voorgez", which means "the Sons of Gromov". From the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, the city of Ephesia in Malaya Asia is made by the place of life and activities of John. In the reign of the emperor Domitsian, he was sent to the island of Patmos, where they were written apocalypse (see Rev. 1: 9). Returned from this link to Ephesus, he wrote his gospel there and died his death (the only one of the apostles), according to legend, quite mysterious, in deep old age, being about 105 years old, in the reign of Emperor Trajan. As legend says, the fourth gospel is written by John at the request of Ephesian Christians. They brought him the first three gospels and asked him to add them to the speeches of the Lord, which he heard from him.
A distinctive feature of the Gospel from John is pronounced in that name, which he was given in antiquity. Unlike the first three Gospels, it is most importantly called the Gospel of the Spiritual. The Gospel of John begins with the statement of the deity of Jesus Christ, and then contains a number of the most sublime speeches of the Lord, in which his divine dignity and the deepest mysteries of faith are revealed, what, for example, a conversation with a nicodemologist about the birth of overwhelming and spirit and about the sacrament Atonement (in. 3: 1-21), a conversation with a samaryanka about the water is alive and about the worship of God in the Spirit and the Truth (John 4: 6-42), a conversation about the bread, descended from heaven and about the sacrament of communion (in. 6 : 22-58), the conversation about the shepherd is good (in. 10: 11-30) and a fair conversation for a farewell conversation with students on a secret evening (in. 13-16) with the final wondrous, the so-called "primary prayer" of the Lord (John 17). John deeply penetrated into the sublime secret of Christian love - and no one as he in his Gospel and in the three of his cathedral messages did not reveal so full, deeply and convincingly, the Christian doctrine of the two major commandments of the Law of God - about love for God and love To neighbor. Therefore, it is also called the Apostle of Love.
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Book of Acts and Cathedral Messals
As the propagation and increasing composition of Christian communities in different parts of the extensive Roman Empire, naturally, the Christians had questions of a religious and painful and practical order. The apostles, not always having the opportunity to personally disassemble these questions on the spot, responded on them in their letters of messages. Therefore, while the Gospel contains the foundations of the Christian faith, the apostolic messages reveal some parties to the teachings of Christ in more detail and show its practical application. Thanks to the apostolic messages, we have a lively certificate of how the Apostles taught and the first Christian communities were formed and lived.
The book of Acts It is a direct continuation of the Gospel. The purpose of its author is to describe the events that took place after the ascension of the Lord Jesus Christ and give an essay in the original device of the Church of Christ. Especially in detail this book tells about the missionary works of the Apostles Peter and Paul. St. John Zlatoust in his conversation about the book Acts clarifies its great importance for Christianity, confirming the facts from the life of the Apostles the truth of the Gospel Teaching: "This book contains in itself the advantage of the proof of the resurrection." That is why in Easter night before the beginning of the glorification of the resurrection of Christ in Orthodox churches, chapters are read from the book of Acts. For the same reason, this book is read entirely in the period from Easter to Pentecost at Daily Liturgy.
The book of Acts tells about the events from the ascension of the Lord Jesus Christ before the arrival of the Apostle Paul in Rome and covers the period of time about 30 years. Chapters 1-12 are narrated by the activities of the Peter's apostle among the Jews Palestine; 13-28 Chapters - about the activities of the Apostle Paul among the Gentiles and the dissemination of the teachings of Christ, already outside of Palestine. The story of the book ends with an indication that the Apostle Paul lived in Rome for two years and unmanneded the doctrine of Christ (Acts 28: 30-31).
The name of "Cathedral" is called seven messages written by the apostles: one - Jacob, two - Peter, three - John theologian and one Juda (not a crirot). As part of the books of the New Testament of the Orthodox edition, they are placed immediately after the book of Acts. They are called the church in early times. "Cathedral" is "district" in the sense that they are not privileged to individuals, but to all Christian communities at all. The whole composition of the Cathedral Meals is named this name for the first time in the historian Eusevia (the beginning of the IV century on R.Kh.). From the messages of the Apostle Paul, the Cathedral messages are distinguished by the fact that they are more common basic instruments, and the Apostle Paul has been adherent to the circumstances of those local churches to which he refers, and has a more special character.
Message of the apostle James
This message was intended for the Jews: "Twelve knees that are in scattering", which did not exclude the Jews who lived in Palestine. Time and place of messages are not specified. Apparently, the message is written to them shortly before the death, probably in 55-60 years. The place of writing is probably Jerusalem, where the apostle stayed constantly. The reason for writing was those sorrow who transferred the scattering from pagans and, in particular, from their unbelievers brothers. The tests were so great that many began to fall in spirit and fluctuate in faith. Some have rushed to external disasters and on God himself, but still seen their salvation in origin from Abraham. They looked incorrectly on prayer, did not have the meaning of good deeds, but would be eagerly made teachers of others. At the same time, the rich were overlooked over the poor, and fraternal love was cooled. All this prompted James to give them the necessary moral healer in the form of a message.
Messages of the Apostle Peter.
First Cathedral Message The Apostle Peter is addressed to the "aliens scattered in Ponte, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Viphini" - the provinces of Malaya Asia. Under the "aliens" it is necessary to understand, mainly those who assured the Jews, as well as the pagans that were part of the Christian communities. These communities were founded by the Apostle Paul. The reason for writing the message was the desire of the apostle Peter "To approve the brothers of his own" (see Lux. 22:32) In the event of non-configurations in these communities and persecutions, comprehended by the enemies of the Cross of Christ. There were among Christians and internal enemies in the face of false teachers. Taking advantage of the absence of the Apostle Paul, they began to distort his doctrine of Christian freedom and patronize any moral promiscuity (see 1 Pet. 2:16; Pet. 1: 9; 2, 1). The purpose of this Petra's message is to encourage, console and approve in the faith of low-immisiistic Christians, for which the Apostle Peter pointed: "This briefly wrote you through the silica, faithful, as I think, your brother to assure you, comforting and testifying that this is true Grace of God in which you stand "(1 Pet. 5:12).
Second Cathedral Message It is written in the same low-depth Christians. In this message, the apostle Peter with a special force warns believers from the depraved false teachers. These false teachings are similar to those who denounce the Apostle Paul in the messages to Timothy and Titus, as well as the Apostle Judas - in his Cathedral Message.
On the appointment of the second Cathedral Epistle of reliable information, except for those contained in the Message itself, no. Who were named "Favorites Madam" and her children are unknown. It is clear only that they were Christians (there is an interpretation that "mistress" is a church, and "children" are Christians). As for the time and place of writing this message, you can think that it is written at the same time, when it was written first, and in the same Ephesus. The Second Message of John has only one chapter. In it, the apostle expresses his joy that the Children of the Children of Mrs who go in truth, promises to visit her and with perseverance exhorts not to have any communication with false teachers.
Third Cathedral Message : addressed to Guy or Kai. Who was it, exactly unknown. From the apostolic scriptures and from the church legend it is known that this name was a few persons (see Dean 19:29; Act. 20: 4; Rome 16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14, etc.), but to whom Of these, or to whom it is written, this message is written, it is not possible to determine. Apparently, this guy did not occupy any hierarchical position, but was simply a pious Christian, a stirrerian. We can assume that: both of these messages are written at approximately the same time, all in the same city of Ephesus, where the Apostle John held the last years of his earthly life. This message is also only from one chapter. In it, the apostle praises Guy for his virtuous life, hardness in faith and "walking in truth", and especially for his virtue of the adoption of wanderers in relation to the preachers of the Word of God, blames the authorized diotreph, reports some news and sends greetings.
Message of the apostle Judah
The writer of this message himself calls himself "Judah, a slave of Jesus Christ, Brother Jacob." From this it can be concluded that this is one person with the Apostle Juda from the twelve, which was called Jacob, and also left (not to be confused with Leviem) and Faddeem (see MF. 10: 3; MK. 3:18; LC. 6: 16; Acts 1:13; John 14:22). He was the son of Joseph of the wrap from the first wife and brother of Joseph - Jacob's children, subsequently, the Bishop of Jerusalem, on nicknamed righteous, Iosia and Simon, also subsequently bishop of Jerusalem. According to legend, his first name was Juda, he received the name of Faddey, taking the baptism from John the Baptist, and the name of Levevea received, having entered the face of the 12 apostles, maybe for the difference from Juda Iskariotsky, who became a traitor. About the apostolic ministry of Judas in the Ascension of the Lord, the legend says that he preached first in Judea, Galilee, Samaria and coming, and then in Arabia, Syria and Mesopotamia, Persia and Armenia, in which martyrs died, crucified on the cross and pierced by arrows. The occasions to writing a message, as can be seen from 3 verses, were the concern of Judah "about the overall salvation of souls" and anxiety about the strengthening of falsehoods (Jud. 1: 3). The Holy Judah directly says that he writes because the wicked people who pay Christian freedom in a reason for the breakdown. This is undoubtedly - Gnostic false teachers who encouraged debauchery under the guise of the "killing" of sinful flesh and considered the world with no creation of God, but by the work of the lower forces hostile to him. These are the same Simonians and Nikolaitians, who denounce the evangelist John in 2 and 3 chapters of the Apocalypse. The purpose of the Epistle is to warn Christians from the hobby of these false teachings, flattened sensuality. The message was appointed to all Christians in general, but in content it is seen that it was intended for a famous circle of persons in which a false teacher was found. With reliability, it can be assumed that this message was originally addressed to the same lowland churches, which then wrote and the apostle Peter.
Messages of the Apostle Paul
Of all the New Testament Sacred Writers, the apostle Paul, who wrote 14 messages was overpowering in the presentation of Christian teachings. By the importance of its content, they are fairly called the "second gospel" and always attracted the attention of both thinkers of philosophers and ordinary believers. The apostles themselves did not dismount these assessed creations of their "beloved fellow", the younger appeal to Christ, but equally across the spirit of teachings and gracious Damas (see 2 Pet. 3: 15-16). By compiling the necessary and important addition to the evangelical teaching, the messages of the Apostle Paul must be the subject of the very attentive and diligent study of each person, aspiring deeper to know the Christian faith. These messages are distinguished by a special highness of religious thought reflecting the extensive scholarship and knowledge of the Old Testament Scripture of the Apostle Paul, as well as his deep understanding of the New Testament Christ of the exercise. Without finding sometimes in modern Greek, the necessary words, the Apostle Paul was forced to sometimes create his own verbal combinations, which then entered into widespread use among Christian writers. These phrases include: "SoviSkrest", "to be offended by Christ", "Painting in Christ", "Consistent with the Old Man", "Saving a Bannet of Pakbytia", "The Law of the Spirit of Life", etc.
Revelation Book, or Apocalypse
Apocalypse (or Translated from Greek - Revelation) John the Bogosla is the only prophetic book of the New Testament. She predicts the coming fate of mankind, about the end of the world and about the beginning of a new eternal life and therefore, naturally, it is placed at the end of the Holy Scriptures. Apocalypse - the book is mysterious and difficult to understand, but at the same time the mysterious character of this book and attracts views of both believers of Christians, and simply inquisitive thinkers who are trying to solve the meaning and the meaning of the visions described in it. There is an enormous number of books on the apocalypse, among which there are a lot of discarded works, especially this refers to modern sectarian literature. Despite the difficulty of understanding this book, spiritually enlightened fathers and teachers of the Church always treated her with great reverence as an inspired by God. So, Dionysius Alexandrian writes: "The darkness of this book does not interfere with her. And if I do not understand everything in it, then only by my inability. I can't be the judge of truths, in it, and measure them by the poverty of my mind; Guided more faithful than the mind, I find them only superior to my understanding. " In the same way, the apocalypse is expressed about the apocalypse of Blessed Jerome: "There are as many secrets in it as words. But what am I saying? All praise this book will be lower than its dignity. " For worship, the apocalypse is not read because in ancient times, reading the Holy Scriptures for the divine service was always accompanied by his explanation, and the Apocalypse is very difficult to explain (however, there is an indication of the reading of the apocalypse, as an edible reading during a certain period of the year). The author of the Apocalypse of the Apocalypse calls yourself John (see Rev. 1: 1-9; Rev. 22: 8). According to the general opinion of the Holy Fathers of the Church, it was the apostle John, the beloved student of Christ, who received a distinguishing name of "theologians" for the height of his teachings about God. Its authorship is confirmed by both the data in the Apocalypse itself and many other internal and external signs. Inspired by Peru of the Apostle John the Theologian belongs to another gospel and three cathedral messages. The author of the Apocalypse says that he was on the island of Patmos for the Word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev. 1: 9). From church history, it is known that from the Apostles only John theologians were imprisoned on this island. Proof of the authorship of the Apocalypse of the Apostle John the Bogoslev serves the similarity of this book with his Gospel and Epistles not only in spirit, but also in a syllable, and especially in some characteristic expressions. Ancient legend refers to the writing of the apocalypse by the end of the i century. So, for example, Irina writes: "Apocalypse appeared shortly before sim and almost in our time, at the end of the reign of domician." The purpose of writing an apocalypse - to portray the upcoming struggle of the church with the forces of evil; show the methods that the devil with the assistance of his servants fight against good and truth; give guide to believers how to overcome temptations; Pictitate the death of enemies of the church and the final victory of Christ over evil.
Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The apostle John in the Apocalypse reveals general seduction methods, and also shows the right way to avoid them to be faithful to death. Similarly, the judgment of God, which has repeatedly speaks apocalypse, is the terrible court of God, and all the private courts of God over individual countries and people. The trial of all humanity is also included here, and the court over the ancient cities of Sodom and Gomorrea with Abraham, and the court over Egypt with Moses, and a two-time trial of the Jews (for six centuries before the Nativity of Christ and again in the seventies of our era), and The court over the ancient Ninevia, Babylon, over the Roman Empire, over Byzantium and is relatively recently recently - over Russia). The reasons that caused the righteous punishment of God were always the same: the disbelief of people and lawlessness. The apocalypse is noticeable defined as time limit or highness. It follows from the fact that the apostle John contemplated the fate of humanity not with earthly, but from the heavenly perspective, where the Spirit of God was erected. In the ideal world, the throne of the Most High stops the flow of time and at the same time appeared at the same time, the present, and the future appeared. Obviously, therefore the author of the Apocalypse some of the events of the future describes as past, and past - as real. For example, war of angels in the sky and low-cost devil - events that happened even before creating the world are described by the John's apostle, as what happened at the dawn of Christianity (Open.10 ch.). The Sunday of the Martyrs and their reign in the sky, which covers the entire New Testament era, is placed after the trial of the antichrist and false prophets (Open.20 ch.). Thus, the Tynoster does not tell about the chronological sequence of events, and reveals the essence of the great war of evil with good, which is simultaneously on several fronts and captures both the real and angelic world.
From the book of Bishop Alexander (Mileanta) "What is the Bible"
Facts about the Bible:
Mafusail is the main long-lived in the Bible. He lived for almost a thousand years and died at the age of 969.
More than forty people worked on the texts of the Scriptures. Many of whom did not even know each other. At the same time there are no obvious contradictions or inconsistencies in the Bible.
From a literary point of view, the Nagorno sermon written in the Bible is the perfect text.
The Bible was the first printed on the Book machine in Germany in 1450.
The Bible contains prophecies that performed hundreds of years later.
The Bible comes out every year in tens of thousands of copies.
Bible Luther's translation into German laid the beginning of Protestantism.
The Bible wrote as many as 1600 years. None of one book of the world was carried out such a long and scrupulous work.
On the chapters and poems, the Bible was divided by Canterbury Bishop Stefan Langton.
In the Bible, 365 times you can read "do not be afraid" (by the number of days in the calendar year).
49 hours of continuous reading is required in order to read the Bible entirely.
In the VII century, the English publishing house has released a Bible with a monstrous typo. One of the commandments looked like this: "adulterators". Almost the entire circulation was eliminated.
The Bible is one of the most commented and quoted books of the world.
The Bible is the book that is most often translated.
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