Types of sushi and rolls: we understand the details -Blog TAM.BY

Sometimes customers who want to use home delivery of sushi are lost and do not know which gastronomic delicacy to give preference to. Let's see what types of sushi are, what are their differences.

First, let's figure out what is the difference between sushi and rolls. Both dishes consist of seafood and rice, the main difference between them is in the shape: the rolls get their name from the rounded shape. Sushi, on the other hand, are lumps of rice covered with fish or seafood and tied with a ribbon of seaweed. In essence, rolls are a type of sushi. In addition to the shape, there is a difference between them in fillings, seasonings and how they are combined.

Common types of rolls

In Japan, there is a type of sushi whose main ingredient is bamboo leaves. In Russia, they simply cannot be found on sale. There are also doubts about the most important ingredient - rice. In Japan, fine-grained white Japanese rice is used to make sushi, which is mixed with rice vinegar, sugar and salt. Sometimes brown or wild rice is used instead of fine white rice. A very important point is the technology of cooking rice: first it is washed, then boiled in a saucepan with a closed lid, adding very little water, which must be infused for some time on kombu (edible seaweed) sheets. After the rice is cooked, it should cool in a special wooden dish. Exports of Japanese rice are very limited. That is why the most famous Japanese dish in Russia will turn out to be a fake anyway.

Rolls (Japanese name - makizushi, or maki) are considered a popular choice for lunch with delivery. In another way they are called norimaki, maki, makizushi ("rolled sushi"). After rolling, the rolls are cut into several parts, traditionally - 6 or 8. The adaptation of Japanese cuisine to the culinary traditions of Europe took place in the USA, after which it quickly spread throughout the world. The most famous California and Philadelphia rolls came from America.



Hosomaki is a common dish in Japan. These types of sushi are also called mono-rolls. Hosomaki - thin rolls, which contain only seafood filling, one type of fish. They are wrapped in nori and contain rice. Popular options with salmon, eel, tuna.



Futomaki is also known as "big rolls". On the outside, they are also wrapped in traditional nori seaweed, but they are much thicker. Here, not one, but several types of filling are used. Vegetable rolls Yasai, as well as Tobiko rolls with a scallop, are a striking example of such a dish.



This kind of rolls is "turned inside out". The main difference from standard maki is that the rice is on the outside, and nori is on the inside. The filling consists of many ingredients, and the rice is then wrapped in fish, sprinkled with sesame seeds or caviar. These types of sushi have the most distinct, rich taste, have a spectacular look, which explains their popularity.

Common types of sushi

суши нигири

Sushi or sushi is a traditional Japanese dish. They are made from rice and seafood. There are many varieties of these dishes, they differ depending on the method of preparation.

Nigiri sushi


Nigiri sushi, or nigirizushi, is a small lump of rice with a small piece of fish on top. Additionally, this whole structure is tied with a thin strip of nori.

Gunkan maki


Sushi gunkan-maki are also called gunkans, gunkanmaks or boats. They have an oval shape, framed with a strip of nori along the entire perimeter, and the filling is fixed on top. The most common filling is rice with flying fish roe. But there are other variations as well. The name "gunkan-maki" means "boat roll".


прессованные суши

Oshizushi is the name given to pressed sushi, which are served in the form of beautiful cubes. They are made using special wooden devices (osibako). The filling, rice is laid out in layers with these wooden sticks, then the components are pressed, cut into small pieces. An especially tasty dish with the addition of eel.

Inari sushi


Inarizushi is a dish made in small bags of fried tofu. They are filled with rice, other filling (most often green beans, gobos become the ingredients). This type is considered more fast food, has less popularity.



Chirashizushi is a simple variety. They are prepared using a roll mat. The ingredients are finely chopped, lightly fried, mixed. The dish is complemented with tofu pieces, sesame seeds, pickled ginger, soy sauce and put on a plate.

Knowing what types of sushi are, you can choose a gastronomic delicacy to taste. Finding an establishment that delivers sushi in Minsk is easy with the TAM.BY catalog.

Sushi, or how to say "sushi" correctly, is a real Japanese dish that has gained popularity all over the world. There are several varieties of them, the most popular of which is rolls. In our country, of course, women are very fond of them, and it's no wonder. After all, they are very tasty and satisfying. And the very process of eating rolls with chopsticks, as they should be in Asia, is a whole meal, not otherwise.

But, to my surprise, the rolls that we buy in Russian sushi bars or order in food markets differ significantly from the real Japanese ones. Moreover, the culture of eating them is also different. Once at a grocery show I met a Japanese man named Ichiro. This wise man said that he would never touch Russian rolls under any pretext. I was very surprised and decided to ask him "why", for which he first treated me to real rolls, as they are prepared in Japan, and then - told about the technology of making Russian rolls. Honestly, I was a little shocked.

The other day I decided to order a set of rolls for 435 rubles in one local dryer (for a promotion). Instead of the excellent taste of sea fish with rice, I got small wheels of something vaguely reminiscent of real Asian rolls. This is what this set looked like.

Agree, is it appetizing enough at first glance? But this is just an illusion
Agree, is it appetizing enough at first glance? But this is just an illusion

Ichiro told me that rolls in Japan are made exclusively from fresh products, and they have a very limited shelf life. IN Land of the rising sun any sushi is not a cheap dish. Like any fresh fish. Prices for it are approximately the same as in Russia. They just have a completely different standard of living, so they can afford to eat rolls at least every day. Hence the stereotypes that the Japanese eat only rice and fish and live for 100 years.

Japanese restaurants mainly cook only three kinds sushi. it poppies (fish, rice, nori shell), nigiri (rice, fresh fish and sesame seeds) and sashimi (raw fish and nori). As for our rolls - Ichiro laughed out loud when I invited him to taste our best rolls "Philadelphia" and "California". The fact is that neither California nor Philadelphia exists among Asians. This creation is exclusively American, and it has almost nothing to do with the original source. That's news to me.

Ginger, it turns out, is needed in order to distinguish some rolls from others ... and not mixed with any rolls and wasabi
Ginger, it turns out, is needed in order to distinguish some rolls from others ... and not mixed with any rolls and wasabi

Now for the ginger. It turns out you need it to cleanse your taste buds before you start eating your next set of rolls. But here ginger is eaten together with rolls as an additional snack. In my opinion, this is nonsense. That’s why I hate nasty sweet and sour ginger.

Ichiro also said that in Russia, fish for rolls is pickled or pre-salted, which is unacceptable for them. In general, only men who must undergo 5-year training in this great art have the right to cook sushi and rolls in Japan. In each such roll, the chef puts a piece of his soul, otherwise the dish will turn out bland and will not have the desired effect on the consumer.

And here is what real Japanese rolls look like. So where is the ginger, tell me?
And here is what real Japanese rolls look like. So where is the ginger, tell me?

Ichiro has nothing against the fact that Russia has greatly modified the technology and ingredients. But to my suggestion to be more restrained and still, for the sake of curiosity, try the rushn-rolls, he replied: "Thank you, of course, but I will never touch what denigrates the traditions of the East." This is how they are, these Asians. Our traditions would be respected so much.

A sushi fan from Russia in Japan is going to have a culture shock. Traditional food is not at all like its European counterpart. American stars, who in the sixties introduced the fashion for rolls and sushi, distorted the dish beyond recognition. The Russian people followed their example.

Sushi is not eaten in restaurants

No waiters and huge menus with 30 types of sushi. In Japan, sushi is prepared in special bars, where visitors sit right in front of the chef. And he not only knows how to skillfully swing a knife, but is also ready to keep up a conversation with a client. Chefs have been training and preparing sushi for years on the machine, so it looks impressive. Another way to eat sushi in Japan is to visit a conveyor belt cafe. The moving belt slowly pulls the plates of food, and the visitors take the ones they like.

Only three kinds of sushi

There are only three types of sushi: maki, nigiri, sashimi. A Russian person recognizes poppies right away: in the delivery menu they are usually listed as "classic rolls". This sushi consists of a fish core, rice and seaweed shell. America has turned traditional poppies inside out - rice out. Nigiri are less popular in Russia, Europe and the United States, because they seem "raw" to people. Sushi looks like lumps of rice, covered with slices of raw fish. Sometimes they are sprinkled with sauce or sprinkled with sesame seeds. Sashimi is technically not sushi at all, but just fish wrapped in seaweed. Without rice, a Russian person did not like such food; fans of Japanese cuisine order sashimi. All other types of sushi are culinary tricks and experiments of American and Russian chefs. Favorite by the majority roll "Philadelphia" has nothing to do with Japan.

Real rolls - no frills

Moderate Japanese simply could not come up with sushi and rolls that combine five to seven ingredients. Real sushi is simple and consists of a maximum of three or four products: one type of fish, rice, seaweed and sometimes sauce. Some, like sashimi, may include only fish and seaweed at all. In Japan, the emphasis is not on the explosive combination of different flavors, but on the freshness of the food. Huge shrimp rolls wrapped in salmon slices with cucumber, avocado, cheese and rice are a hearty American invention.

See also: How to eat sushi? 4 simple rules from legendary Japanese chef Masaharu Morimoto

Friends, Factrum is an independent publication and your help will be very useful to us

Lots of delicious sushi. Photo: Hub Japan
Lots of delicious sushi. Photo: Hub Japan

I am often asked how Japanese sushi differs from Russian, so I decided to tell everything here once. True, usually the questioners then shake their heads and do not believe, because this does not fit into their picture of the world.

Rolls are not sushi

Almost all rolls that are found in Russian restaurants are American cuisine, not Japanese. All these "California" and "Philadelphias", "dragon rolls" and so on, which are usually eaten in Russian restaurants, are not eaten in Japan. Or they do, but in Western restaurants.

In Japan, you can find the simplest rolls, with cucumber or salmon, but they are usually used to decorate a dish, at buffets instead of canapés, and so on.

There are such rolls in Japan. Photo: Tokyo Belly
There are such rolls in Japan. Photo: Tokyo Belly

Also, in a roll-like shape (i.e. wrapped in nori seaweed), of course, sushi is made from friable products. We are talking about caviar, crab meat, sea urchin.

Sushi with uni (sea urchin) and caviar.
Sushi with uni (sea urchin) and caviar.

Therefore, if in Japan the restaurant says “Sushi”, then there is actually sushi inside. Rice, and there is a fish on it.

This is what sushi looks like. In the photo - sea urchin, salmon, tuna belly, eel. Photo: Konstantin Govorun
This is what sushi looks like. In the photo - sea urchin, salmon, tuna belly, eel. Photo: Konstantin Govorun

Plus (not always) they offer sashimi (just fish, no rice).

Tuna sashimi. Photo: Japan Times
Tuna sashimi. Photo: Japan Times

In the south of Honshu, they just like to spread a bunch of different raw fish on a pad of rice; in Hokkaido, they like to make a kind of cold soup from rice, raw fish, crab meat and soy broth, which must be eaten with a spoon. But this is, of course, not called "sushi".

For comparison, in Russia for some reason they like to eat exactly rolls so that the most of everything is crammed there. Sushi is rarely ordered, but sashimi, in my opinion, is only me.

Use soy sauce and wasabi correctly

That's enough already. Photo: Japan Center
That's enough already. Photo: Japan Center

Sushi should be dipped in soy sauce with fish, not rice. It is customary to pour soy sauce itself a little bit, literally on the bottom. In our country, it is poured into a saucer almost to the top.

There are two reasons: rice falls apart from soy sauce, and the very taste of soy sauce (rice absorbs too much of it) interrupts the taste of fish. If you dip with fish, then there will be just a little sauce, just in moderation.

In Russia, as I understand it, people just think rice (improperly cooked) and fish (frozen) tasteless, hence the rolls with mayonnaise, and the abundance of soy sauce.

Although in Europe and the USA, I also saw how much sauces thump, and then they are surprised that they are uncomfortable with sushi and switch to rolls.

When it comes to wasabi, in Japan it is common to put enough wasabi right inside the sushi. You do not need to add additional to the sauce (although it is not forbidden, but by this you seem to tell the chef that he did a bad job).

If you don't like wasabi at all, you can ask the cook not to put it on.

You don't need to feel sorry for the fish!

The Japanese put more fish in sushi so that the fish hangs from the ends of the rice bun back and forth. Well, they cut it differently, not stupidly with parallelepipeds, but so that it is beautiful and the taste is revealed better.

The correct sushi size. Little rice, lots of fish. It should hang down. Photo: Konstantin Govorun
The correct sushi size. Little rice, lots of fish. It should hang down. Photo: Konstantin Govorun

Sushi is not an everyday meal

Sushi in Japan is expensive food for the holidays. For some reason, people think that in Japan sushi is eaten every day. But in reality, an ordinary lunch will cost about $ 10, and a normal sushi lunch (eat 15-20 pieces, and not the cheapest ones) is already spending $ 30. I usually eat sushi in Japan once a week, and this enough.

Moreover, if we compare sushi with salmon (which in Russia are more or less adequate), then in Japan one piece can be taken for 50 rubles, and in Moscow it will cost 90 rubles, and there will be one and a half times less fish. Tuna belly sushi in Japan costs 250 rubles, in Moscow - 1000 rubles.

So don't assume that sushi prices should be such that you can eat them every day.

Fresh fish

The choice of fish in Japan is, in principle, similar to the Russian one with one big difference - the fish is fresh, just caught. In Russia, only salmon is fresh. Accordingly, in Japan, it makes no sense to take only salmon in a restaurant (you can try it here, and it is more or less adequate), but it makes sense to try the right tuna and the right yellowtail. Their difference is striking. At the same time, tuna usually comes in two or four varieties, from ordinary (it is also very tasty) to fatty and tender meat from the belly of the tuna. The latter is quite expensive, but worth a try. Shellfish, octopus and eel are also different, but the difference is smaller. You can try shrimp raw (in Russia it is always boiled).

From exotic, I really like sushi with sea urchin (uni), but this dish is very for everybody's taste. No matter how much I tried all the other fish with incomprehensible names, I did not find anything cool. Fugu fish sushi is normal, but I would not look for it and eat it. Often they offer sushi with fried caviar of various fish - this is also normal, but not divine either.

Therefore, I usually take something like this: two salmon, four tuna, one fat tuna, four yellow tails, two hedgehogs, two eels and a couple of other / new ones. It turns out divine.

My new favorite is saury sushi. Served only at the end of September. Photo: Konstantin Govorun
My new favorite is saury sushi. Served only at the end of September. Photo: Konstantin Govorun

About Moscow restaurants where you can try normal Japanese cuisine, I write to darkwren.ru ... For example, this is an authentic restaurant.

There are thousands of cafes with rolls and sushi in Moscow. Did you know that rolls are an American invention and you hardly find them in Japan? In the wake of a resurgence of fashion for Japanese cuisine, this time real, Afisha Daily publishes a guide to the key words you need to learn before going to a restaurant.

Kelp: kombu, wakame and nori

The most popular used for food

Seaweed sheets kombu large and thick, they are added to soups and salads, seasoned with rice. Kombu is known in Russia as seaweed. It is dried, pickled, ground into powder and eaten raw. Wakame - thin, slightly sweet algae with a silky texture. It is most often added to miso soup and salads. Nori when dried, it resembles thin sheets of green paper. It is in nori that rolls and onigiri are wrapped.


Japanese green horseradish, companion to sushi and sashimi

A plant related to horseradish. A sharp green paste is made from its stem. The most valuable are the stems of wasabi growing in cool running water - they are more aromatic and pungent. The plantations are located on the slope of a mountain, along which spring water continuously flows. This wasabi is not ground into a paste, but grated directly onto a plate before serving. But the main thing, of course, is the variety. They differ in shade of color from bright green to almost pure yellow and nuances of taste.

True, green pasta, which we serve with sushi and rolls along with pickled ginger and soy sauce, in most cases has nothing to do with good wasabi ... Most often it is a mixture of regular horseradish, mustard powder and dyes.


Pickled ginger for sushi

Pickled ginger is part of the world of tsukemono, Japanese pickled vegetables. Gari are slices of thinly sliced ​​young pink or white ginger, marinated in vinegar with added sugar. We saw them every time we ordered rolls or sushi. And as with wasabi, here you need to understand: the quality of ginger can be very different.

There is another type of pickled ginger - beni shoga. If gari is used to zero out the taste between different types of sushi, then beni-shoga is exactly part of many dishes, such ginger is cut thicker and pickled differently.

Dashi / Dasi

The most famous Japanese broth

Kombu seaweed broth and katsuobushi - dried tuna. Pure umami. The most famous dashi dish is miso soup. You’ve often come across the word “dashi” in Billboard Daily articles for many years, even if they are not talking about Japanese restaurants. The fact is that this broth is liked by many chefs - French, English, Italians or Russians, it doesn't matter - who prepare their own cuisine, combining quotes from any cuisine in the world.


Literally - "little balls"

The dessert is easily recognizable by the emoji depicting three colored balls put on a thin bamboo stick - 🍡, these are mochi balls. Dessert also has an endless number of variations, however, unlike daifuku, the filling, in this case the sauce or powder, is not a surprise, but is always generously applied to the dessert on top. It can also be served warm: it is caramelized on the grill, baked and scalded in a hot soup with a very rich broth based on dashi, kombu and soy sauce (as you understand, this will no longer be a dessert) - the components responsible for the minds. It is a versatile product that makes it truly irreplaceable.


Name and preparation technique for both dessert and sticky rice dough

A viscous rice dough that is the basis for perhaps the most popular and recognizable dessert both in Japan and abroad - the eponymous sweet rice cake. Mochi is obtained from a special glutinous rice called motigome, which is first boiled and kneaded until it becomes a homogeneous porridge, and then beaten off for a long time with a heavy wooden hammer.

Cooking mochi is the oldest technique that has hardly changed over the eras, and is always a fun impromptu show that attracts a large number of tourists and onlookers (see the video above). One of the two procurers is continuously wielding a hammer, making it two blows per second. The role of the second procurer is to wet the tight sweetish mass with water in a matter of seconds between hammer blows and turn it over or fold it to the center of the stupa, forming an elastic ball. At the end of this action, the dough is divided into small pieces, laid out in waxed paper envelopes and distributed to the audience.

The most famous and textbook examples of mochi-based desserts are daifuku and dango sweets. Daifuku (literally "great luck") are small, semi-circular cakes about ½ a chicken egg in size, with a sweet red adzuki bean paste inside. In addition to sweet pasta, they also hide whole and grated fruits, sweet cream with matcha, chocolate chips, mango, melon, as well as all types of ice cream. And in terms of the number of variations in taste, color and texture of the fillings, they can be compared to French pasta cakes.


Soybean paste is the basis of many dishes, including soups

A thick, fermented soybean paste. The process is similar to the production of soy sauce: fermentation takes place with the help of the aspergillus fungus with barley, rice or other cereals. But unlike soy sauce, miso beans ferment faster - from a few days, but up to several years as well. Mainly, pasta is used as a condiment for soups, grilling glazes and more.


Literally "a handful of [rice]"

It is believed that the first mention of onigiri dates back to the end of the Heian era, the heyday of Japanese culture, where the author of the most significant classic Japanese novel in one of his diaries mentions rice balls that aristocrats enjoyed during picnics in nature.

Now onigiri are sold and eaten literally everywhere, and they are sure to be put in a lunch box brought from home. but since the 11th century, they have undergone a number of positive changes, ceasing to be just rice balls. Now they come in different shapes. More often there are balls, triangles and various animals: hares, pandas, and so on. In other words, when Instagram shows you another cute video about Japanese food, where the heroes are zoomorphic characters made of rice, rest assured: this is an onigiri.

You can wrap almost everything in this "handful of rice" - umeboshi plum, kimchi, pulkogi pork, crab salad with kyupi mayonnaise, sea urchin caviar, vegetables, chikenkatsu (the same as tonkatsu, only with chicken), shrimp, parmesan and an endless variety of other equally delicious ingredients.

Onigiri are fried in a pan, seared with a gas burner, wrapped in pickled sesame leaves, rolled in furikake or dried tuna shavings, wrapped in nori leaves, and even served neat cold or hot, just like Heian aristocrats.


Literally "hot spring egg"

A special way of boiling eggs for a long time at a low temperature. This the culinary term is closely related to Japanese bathing culture and the Japanese craze for hot springs. The eggs are boiled for about 40 minutes at a constant temperature of 70-75 degrees.

This is what an onsen looks like - a hot spring, a traditional spa in Japan

Onsen-tamago is often compared to a poached egg, however, unlike poached egg, where the liquid and dense protein curls up to full elasticity, often affecting the yolk itself, the latter is cooked in the shell, which gives an unusually delicate and almost airy texture of the protein and absolutely liquid yolk. At the same time, the finished egg separates well from the shell and has a rather stable oval shape.

Onsen-tamago - or ontama for short - served in a beautiful ceramic cup, drizzled with Worcester or soy sauce with a couple of drops of mirin and dashi, a pinch of green onions and furikake, is the perfect minimalist breakfast dish with coffee and croissant. However, this is not the only way to use ontama in Japanese cuisine, and without exaggeration, it goes well with almost any dish - plain rice, broth with noodles, ramen, rice with pork and fried vegetables, tempura, and so on.


Old Dutch Japaneseized word for sour juice drink

One of the basic Japanese sauces is mirin (rice wine), rice vinegar, kombu seaweed, katsuobushi (dried tuna), and citrus juice (lemon, yuzu, etc.). But there may be a different, more authoritative composition. Most often, ponzu is mixed with soy sauce and used as a marinade or dipped in already cooked meat, fish or vegetables. Of Moscow chefs, Glen Ballis loves to add ponzu to everything in the world the most. Check out the menus at his Glenuill and Cutfish restaurants - perfect use of the sauce.


The second most famous Japanese soup after miso

Ramen are different types of broth with noodles made from wheat flour with the addition of soda and potash in the calculated amount. The broth is boiled, as a rule, on pork or chicken bones, as well as on vegetables or seaweed, with the addition of sauces. There are four main types of ramen (there are dozens of variations): shou, shio, miso and tonkotsu. Shou is the most common ramen, soy sauce is added to the broth. The broth is almost transparent in sio, it is considered the softest of the soups. Miso is an orange-brown broth due to the addition of the paste of the same name. Tonkotu is most often white in color, creamy in texture and has a rich flavor.


Crispy beautiful lotus root (actually the stem)

The underwater part of the plant, not really a root, but a stem with many longitudinal holes. Valued not least for its beauty : Cutaway pattern resembles lace. Consists mainly of starch. It is pickled, fried in tempura, added to salads and soups.

Shoyu - soy sauce

Also native to China, Malaysia, Korea, Indonesia and other countries

The main seasoning of Japanese cuisine, a product of soybean fermentation. Traditionally, the beans are first stewed at a high temperature, then roasted wheat and a whole mixture of cultures of microorganisms are added to them, the key of which is the Aspergillus fungus. This base mix is ​​called koji. Saline is added to the koji and allowed to ferment. Then the sauce itself is squeezed out of the mixture. The process takes from several months to several years, the intensity, richness of taste and, of course, the price depend on it.

To speed up production, many commercial companies are replacing the long fermentation process with industrial chemical processing of soy protein instead of beans. This process takes only a couple of days, but the taste of the sauce is different.


Buckwheat noodles in a dozen serving options

Brown buckwheat noodles. It is served in Japan both hot and cold - the more common option. The flavor depends a lot on the broth and additives. It can be duck, mushrooms, shrimp, eggplant.


Literally: sukimi - "meat cut into thin slices", yaku - "fry"

This dish (like many others) has its roots in fishing villages. the Edo era, when most of the time the country was closed from any external contacts, which gave a huge impetus to the development of the identity of Japanese society ... It was then that the process of rethinking the gastronomic traditions of China and Korea took place, which had the greatest influence on the formation of ethics and aesthetics, as well as the form and content of modern Japanese cuisine, which began its triumphant march around the world from the era of total Westernization of the country at the end of the 19th century.

Sukiyaki is a separate category of Japanese dishes, united by the common name "nabemono" - "what is cooked in a pot." In terms of the set of ingredients, this dish can be attributed to "porridge from an ax": in its original version, everything that could be found on the farm was added to the pot. Over time, a stable set of products and condiments and the order of their preparation was developed, which, in turn, is divided into two main ones - the Kanto method (eastern part of Honshu island) and Kansai method (western part of Honshu island).

Sukiyaki is traditionally cooked in a deep metal pot placed on a portable gas stove. This is more of a festive dish, and it is customary to eat it in a company. It is simmered, and the most popular foods include marbled beef, bok choy, batun, carrots, tofu, enoki mushrooms, shiitake, goldflower and various types of glass noodles.

The Kansai orientalist add vegetables and meat to a simmering warasita sauce made up of sugar, mirin, sake, soy sauce, and dashi, bringing the dish to cook. Westerners, Kansai, first fry the meat with brown muscovado sugar, add warasita sauce, and lastly place the vegetables and tofu in a pot, until cooked over low heat.

These two methods also differ in the set of ingredients. In particular, due to the significant natural and political disasters of the first half of the twentieth century, which affected the quality of life of the Japanese, in the past, expensive beef could be substituted for pork, chicken or fish for making sukiyaki. AND only one essential detail does not cause controversy among lovers of sukiyaki from different parts of the country - the obligatory immersion of chopsticks with steaming pieces of food in a bowl of raw egg .

Comparing sukiyaki with another popular nabemono - shabu-shabu, it is worth noting that the latter was presented to the public only in the 1950s in Osaka. Slices of marbled beef are scalded in a very rich, honey-colored broth based on kombu and shavings of dried tuna (bonito), in which they spread about the same set of vegetables as in sukiyaki.

Sushi, or sushi

These are not rolls, this is rice with fish

Sushi is raw fish or seafood with rice. In Russia, it is practically a synonym for Japanese cuisine and a victim of its own overwhelming success. In fact, this is only a small part of a huge culinary tradition.

In its modern form, appeared in Japan only in the 19th century, before that sushi was called a method of storing raw fish in rice, invented in China. The fish, thanks to the fermentation of rice, did not spoil, although it had a strong and specific smell. This rice itself was not eaten. This storage method, Narezushi, is still used today in some provinces in Japan.

The main component of modern sushi is rice cooked in a special way with vinegar, salt and sugar. Often it is the rice that is used to assess the quality of sushi. Rice is often supplemented with nori leaves - dried and pressed seaweed, and a filling made from fish, sometimes eggs, vegetables, or even fruits and meat. Depending on the ingredients and shape, dozens of types of sushi are distinguished in Japan, but the usual rolls cannot be found among them: this is an American invention.


Literally - fried sea carp, in practice - dessert

One of the most popular desserts in the wagashi universe - this term refers to traditional Japanese sweets. it a small cake that is baked from a thick (pancake-like) dough in special heavy folding tins with fish-shaped depressions. A variety of fillings are added to the taiyaki during baking, including custard, sweet potato, chocolate, and the most popular of these, anko paste made from sweet red adzuki beans.

Taiyaki carts and stalls are always found in busy tourist areas, famous Japanese parks and other crowded places. The most popular of them bake over a thousand cakes per hour.

There is a dessert similar to taiyaki, but different from it - imagawayaki. This is a cylindrical cake, often with a pattern reminiscent of the coats of arms of Japanese aristocratic houses. In addition to the sweet anko bean paste, they also bake almonds, various jams, cheese, mashed potatoes, curried vegetables and much more, which turns imagawayaki from a delicious dessert into an equally delicious snack.

It is also worth paying attention to Dorayaki is the favorite food of one of the most famous Japanese cartoon characters, the blue robot-cat Doraemon. It is a generous layer of the same sweet anko pasta sandwiched between two traditional Japanese castella pancakes, which in turn forms the basis for the famous biscuit of the same name, whose roots go back to the history of relations with Portugal - the first exporter of everything traditionally European to the Japanese archipelago, including some types food and culinary technician.


Bean curd in a jelly to hard state

Tofu is prepared according to the same principle as regular curd: soy milk is curdled when heated under the influence of citric acid, magnesium chloride (nigari) or even sea water. Practically tasteless, which allows you to use it as widely as possible: pickle, make desserts, add to soups, salads and pates. It can be hard (pressed) and soft. Tofu is high in protein, which is why it is especially appreciated by vegetarians. The Japanese love soft "silk" tofu with soy sauce or ponzu, while hard tofu is fried in batter, smoked and added to meat and soups.

Tonkatsu, tonkotsu and tenkasu are different!

Pork chop, ramen broth and leftover tempura

Tonkatsu is one of the most popular Japanese meat dishes that does not require special cooking techniques and skills. This is a deep-fried pork fillet with a crispy panko shell.

It is often a stand-alone dish, served with a bowl of rice garnished with furikake, finely chopped fresh cabbage and a very rich thick sauce of the same name. But they are also complemented by complex Japanese dishes: ramen, noodles with vegetables, curried rice, sandwiches, burgers, omelets and salads. The use of tonkatsu is limited only by fantasy.

Tonkatsu is often confused with another important term in Japanese cuisine - tonkotsu pork bone broth, which forms the basis of ramen, which is completely defined in terms of the composition of products and the taste. rooted in the fishing villages of Fukuoka Prefecture on Kyushu.

There is and another term consonant with these two - "tenkasu" (literally - "tempura remnants") - small crunchy balls resembling pine nuts in shape ... They are obtained by roasting the traditional tempura batter (by the way, imported by the Portuguese, like many other ingredients of Japanese cuisine). Tenkasu is generously sprinkled with ramen, regular noodles with broth, rice with any ingredients, and okonomiyaki. In addition, they are also used in snacks such as onigiri, takoyaki, rolls, where crispy elements always enhance the positive sensations of sudden airiness. The product most similar to tenkasa in texture and familiar to the Russian consumer is crab chips from the 90s - zyaki-zyaki.


Anything in a thin airy crispy batter

This culinary term, dish and technique are closely related to the spread of Catholicism in Japan and with the Portuguese, who, by a lucky coincidence, became the first missionaries and guides to the European way of life ... The name originates from the Latin Quatour tempora, a term associated with a quarterly three-day fast. During seasonal Catholic fasts, it was allowed to eat seafood, which, among other things, was fried in batter based on flour, eggs, sugar and sake.

Of course, the Japanese have perfected the composition of the batter, and unlike the heavy and thick Portuguese original, the Japanese tempura has become airy and crispy. Main foods: flour, eggs and ice water. And of course, they began to dip tempura in slightly salted soy sauce with the addition of ginger, garlic and rice vinegar.

It is noteworthy that the spread of tempura coincided with the development of the yatai (literally "shop") stall trade in the Edo era, which became, among other things, the prototype of Japanese street food on wheels ... For a long time, the sale of tempura within the city was prohibited due to its high fire hazard associated with the use of large amounts of boiling oil. That is why its heyday fell on the coastal areas of the city, abundant in seafood.

Today, in addition to seafood and all types of vegetables, under the crunchy layer of tempura, you can be surprised to find various sweets, cheese, fruits and ice cream.


More familiar - chavan-mushi, an easy-to-prepare tender steamed egg castard

Literally "what is steamed in a tea bowl." Chavanmushi was borrowed from Chinese merchants who lived compactly in the Tojin-Yashiki quarter in Nagasaki, specially built for them in the 17th century. The dish, which has absorbed Chinese culinary traditions, underwent some changes under the influence of Western cuisine during the Meiji era, and today it is found both in ordinary eateries and in Michelin restaurants, being an integral interlude of the grandiose gastronomic symphonies of some eminent Japanese chefs.

At the same time, the basic recipe for chawanmushi is as trivial as only delicious dishes can afford. It is made with whisked eggs, salt, mirin and soy sauce and dashi broth. The eggs are filtered through a strainer and delicately poured into a teacup, where shrimps, slices of kamaboko (a prototype of crab sticks - 🍥 - and other similar products made from surimi paste) are laid out according to the principle of ideal symmetry, shiitake mushroom caps, Mitsuba leaves, pieces of chicken fillet and ginkgo nuts ...

A hot chawanmushi is the perfect hangover breakfast, but it is just as delicious chilled as one of the lunch box dishes of a jaded Japanese "white collar" office life.


Thick wheat noodles

Thick wheat flour noodles without eggs. Served, as a rule, with broth and various additives.


Literally - "what is sprinkled with"

Dry seasoning for rice. It is believed that furikake was invented at the beginning of the 20th century by a pharmacist who was concerned about the problem of calcium deficiency among the Japanese. The condiment is based on fish, dried whole directly with bones and minced with sesame seeds, seaweed, salt and sugar. Dried shiso leaves, green tea, yeast, eggs, dried vegetables, and so on can also be added to furikake. Today, a bag of ready-made furikake from the supermarket is found in almost every Japanese home.

Citruses: yuzu, kabosu, yokan

A whole world of Japanese citrus fruits

Yuzu (or yuzu) is the most famous Japanese citrus outside of Japan, which was brought to the country more than 700 years ago. The size is average between lemon and orange. It tastes like lemon, lime and tangerine at the same time. The rind and juice of yuzu are used as a condiment and dressing for salads and main dishes. Yuzu is part of ponzu. The fruit is also used to make wine, liqueurs, tea, marmalade, ice cream, and more. There are also, for example, kabosu - an alternative to lemon, ranging in color from light green to bright yellow, and yokan (or anadomican) - a fruit similar to tangerine, and tastes slightly sweeter than grapefruit.

Shiso / shiso

A green leaf that always goes with sushi and sashimi

Perilla plant, which for some reason is sometimes called Japanese parsley. In Russia it is sometimes used as an ornamental plant. The leaves are similar to nettle, the taste is something between mint and basil. Shiso leaves are always served with sashimi (in Russia too, but almost no one knows what is not for beauty, but for taste) , added as a fragrant seasoning to meat and fish, young shoots are used as a side dish.

Details on the topic

Mexican vocabulary: learning to understand dishes and products

Mexican vocabulary: learning to understand food and products

Hello my dear readers. I am very glad to see you on my pages again. In this article, you will find out what the name of sushi rice is.

The land of the rising sun, which is what Japan is often called, very reverently honors the traditions of its ancestors in literally everything. For example, what is only a tea ceremony, which lasts several hours, or the etiquette of a Japanese person's behavior at a meal.

For the Japanese, cooking and eating is a whole ritual that has not changed for centuries.

Of all the variety of dishes that traditional Japanese cuisine can offer us, I want to draw your attention to sushi and tell you about real Japanese sushi.

And what is the real Japanese sushi called? Japanese sushi in Japan is called "sushi". Sushi has many varieties (futomaki, hosomaki, nigiri, etc.).

For example, hosomaki - rice, cucumber and fish are wrapped in a nori leaf. A fumatoki is a lump of rice with fish or vegetables.

And nigiri is a lump of rice with a piece of raw fish and wasabi.

In general, in simple terms, we can say that sushi is rice that is formed into a lump or wrapped in a nori leaf (pressed seaweed) with various additions in the form of raw fish, vegetables and various sauces.

Rice is the staple of sushi. If you are going to make sushi and want your dish to be no different from real Japanese sushi, then you need to choose the right type of rice.

A certain type of rice is used to make sushi.

So, what are the names of sushi rice and where to get it?

Today there are a lot of rice varieties.

Each variety has specific properties and is suitable for specific dishes.

For example, the Jasmine rice variety is suitable for making cereals and desserts, while the Basmiti rice variety is suitable for pilaf.

The Japanese use rice varieties called Nikishi and Fushigon for making sushi.

These varieties are perfect for making sushi. After all, such varieties have the necessary stickiness to form lumps from rice that will not collapse when performing various manipulations with sushi (for example, when trying to dip sushi in soy sauce).

Finding such a variety in our stores or ordering it via the Internet is not problematic, but the price bites a lot.

You can, of course, spend money and buy, or you can pick up rice that will be similar in properties to rice varieties such as Nikishi and Fushigon.

Nikishi and Fushigon, as mentioned above, have high stickiness and rice, which is grown in Russia in the Krasnodar Territory, can become an alternative to Japanese cereal.

This type of rice is called round parboiled rice.

Round-grained steamed is in no way inferior to Japanese traditional varieties.

If your choice is in favor of rice grown in the Russian open spaces, then you can prepare sushi that is in no way inferior to real Japanese sushi and will save a lot.

Of course, choosing the right rice and accompanying ingredients like fish, soy sauce are very important for making sushi.

And you can learn how to cook rice for sushi from my article "how to cook rice for sushi and rolls at home."

Well, at the end of our conversation, I would like to say that any dish of Japanese cuisine and sushi here is no exception requires skill in cooking, because everything does not always work out the first time.

All comes with experience. I know that in Japan, cooks who have more than 10 years of experience behind them are allowed to cook sushi, rolls or sushi (sushimi is another interesting Japanese dish, which can be learned in more detail from the article on sushi).

P.S. I wish you all the best in your sushi making. Cook, delight yourself and your loved ones with a variety of Japanese cuisine.

If you liked my article on what kind of rice is needed for real Japanese sushi, then leave your review on the site. Thank.

Oh, I almost forgot, here are some more articles on the topic:


Why is rice dangerous?


What is rice good for?

Why is brown rice useful?


Today sushi is one of the most popular dishes in the world. However, most often in Russia, Europe and America, something very far from the original is served under this name. That is why I will tell you about how real sushi is made in Japan.


The dish, called "sushi" in Japan, appeared in the 7th century. It was prepared as follows: raw fish was sprinkled with salt and mixed with rice, after which all this was placed under a stone press and marinated for several months. This technology is considered one of the oldest conservation methods. Even the hieroglyph for sushi translates as “pickled fish”. Since then, the method of preparing sushi has constantly changed: in the 17th century in Japan, rice vinegar became widespread, which began to be added to sushi to add spice to the dish. In addition, under the name "sushi" there was no longer pickled, but raw fish.


The dish acquired its modern look only in the 19th century. Its creator can be considered the Japanese chef Johei, who sculpted a rice ball, coated it with wasabi (Japanese horseradish, which has antimicrobial properties), and put a piece of raw fish on top. This type of sushi is called nigiri - it was from it that the triumphal procession of Japanese dishes began around the world. Today there are several types of this famous Japanese dish:


Nigiri Sushi - As mentioned earlier, this is a rice ball with wasabi and a piece of raw fish. In extremely rare cases, a little nori (dried and pressed seaweed) is added to nigiri.


Makizushi (rolls) - cylindrical sushi, usually wrapped in nori leaves (sometimes in an omelet or cucumber) stuffed with fish or vegetables and rice.


Futomaki is practically the same as makizushi. The difference is that futomaki are larger in size and can contain several types of filling at the same time.


Futomaki is a special variety of makizushi in which nori leaves are on the inside and rice is on the outside. This cooking technology was invented by the Americans, since the appearance of nori leaves spoils their appetite. A little later, uramaki began to be cooked in Japan.

Hosomaki resembles makizushi in appearance, but is slightly smaller in diameter. Outside - nori leaf, inside usually cucumber or tuna.


Temaki - 10 cm rolls wrapped in a nori sheet with a large amount of filling inside. They are allowed to be eaten with their hands, since it is impossible to do this with chopsticks.


Oshizushi - sushi in which the entire filling is pressed into a bar and then cut into small rectangular pieces.

Narezushi, as already mentioned, is the oldest type of sushi, which is made from raw fish, which is marinated with salt and rice for more than a month, after which it can be eaten for a year after conservation.


Gunkan-maki is a sushi in the form of a ship made of rice, decorated with a strip of nori stuffed with caviar or pasta salad.


Only chefs who have spent at least three years learning this art can cook a real Japanese dish - this is how long courses on training sushi masters take in Japan. It is almost impossible to make real sushi at home, even Japanese housewives do it in extremely rare cases, since the process of making sushi can be compared to a kind of sacred rite. Therefore, it should be admitted that in many European (including Russian) restaurants, the sign of which reads "Japanese cuisine", they do not know how to cook national dishes of this country at all.

Consider the Washington Post scandal: Japan's Agriculture Minister was in America, where he visited a Japanese restaurant. The dishes that were served to him could hardly be called Japanese, which instantly pissed the minister out of himself. After this incident, the Japanese government decided to rectify the situation and start checking foreign restaurants calling themselves Japanese. Those establishments that passed the quality check and were found to be suitable were given the right to hang a sign on the window saying that the restaurant has the right to be called Japanese - cherry blossoms. There are many varieties of sushi that are simply impossible to cook in Russia using technology. First of all, this applies to sushi, to which raw fish is added. In Japan, there are night markets where only the freshest fish is brought, after four hours this product is already considered spoiled. People who want to taste sushi can see for themselves that the food is fresh: in many Japanese restaurants, fish is caught directly from the aquarium and prepared for everyone to see. In Russia, frozen ocean or sea fish is most often used - and this can no longer be called a Japanese dish. Also in Russia there is no guarantee that the fish from which sushi was made today will not be used tomorrow. And this is fraught not only with poisoning, but also with disease, and in rare cases - even death. в In Japan, sushi is a fairly expensive dish that can be afforded by an upper-middle-class person (an average serving in a restaurant costs about $ 250). This is due to the fact that the dish is prepared from fresh and expensive products. In Russia, the cheapest foodstuffs can be used as a filling: crab sticks, cucumbers, cheese, peppers, etc. In Japanese sushi, the most common fillings are: tofu, avocado, squid, octopus, shrimp, sea urchin, clams, pickled daikon (Japanese radish), pickled soy, asparagus, pickled plum, pumpkin, burdock, and corn with mayonnaise.

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