Despite the fact that the word "Pilgrim" has already lost its former relevance for quite a long time, it is still present in our active dictionary, surprising and with its versatility, and the number of modern conceptual markers.
How many semantic shades of this term today and which of them have special importance for us - will understand in order.
Pilgrim is ...
The shortest and comprehensive answer can be found in the "Foreign Words" dictionary for A.N. Hudinova. There it is specified that the word "pilgrim" occurred from the Latin basis " Peregrinus. ", Resulting from a fusion of two parts:
"Per" - what does "through, through";
And "Ager" - "Field, Earth, Area".
As a result, the term "PereeGre" turned out, which was used in the meaning "outside the fatherland, outside the house, abroad, in other people's edges," and the meaning of the foundation of "Peregrinus" was concretized to the concept " foreigner, alien "
Over time - already in Romanesque languages, united by a common Latin ancestor, - the word "Pellegrino" appeared, which was used as in his immediate meaning ("The Bogomolese coming to the holy places pilgrim ") And in a generalized, broader sense (" Wanderer, traveler, traveler ").
It is noteworthy that according to the data of the "etymological dictionary" M. Fasmer - in Russian speech, this word was not penetrated from the Romanesque source, but from the Rannograman languages, where the term "Pelegrîme" was used by about the III-IV centuries.
However, he acquired a special relevance much later when pilgrimage as such became a massive phenomenon not only in the Middle East, but also in Europe.
After creating a spiritual-knightly Teutonic Order in the XII century, designed to defend pilgrims (and in fact, to fight non-Christians), another concept appeared - Pilgrims Crusaders .
In fact, these were the participants of the Crusades, which "took the cross" before going to the Holy Land.
The "accepted cross" called their travels "Walking" and "pilgrimages" , but all other fellow citizens were usually called this "pilgrims", and such traveling verobors - Just pilgrims .
Pilgrimage to shrines - how it all started
Idea hiking holy places For a long time, almost all religions have been fully exploited, but only at the turn of the IV-V centuries, the pilgrimage gained truly sacral meaning, turning into generally accepted proof of piousness.
Representatives of any clauses could go to such trips, which had a rather tangible effect of both culture and society as a whole.
It was the so-called The era of late antiquity , the main feature of which was the legalization of Christianity, implemented by Konstantin Great in the Roman Empire (313 years old), and the subsequent assignment of the status of state religion.
The church as an authority was only formed, and its main efforts were aimed at strengthening power.
It is clear that the pilgrimage has become a completely effective tool for these purposes, and the clergy supports supported the desire of believers to go almost for thirty lands to :
worship places and relics, consecrated by the activities of Jesus and / or its apostles;
to execute this god vow, uttered under the testimony of a priest;
prayers committed in holy places, ascend the God of wonderful healing from the ailments (both for himself and for their loved ones);
atone for grave sins and / or crime;
get a blessing;
Get rid of doubts and strengthen the Spirit.
Already from one of the list of such here, the goals can be concluded that Pilgrim is a believer which is sent to pilgrimage on religious reasons.
And such wandering mantis in those days were very much - mainly due to the subtle policy of Rome, aimed at submitting people to the dominant in all spheres of life of religion.
Children, regardless of the estate and welfare of families, were brought up not only in fear of Kari God, but also in the postulates, that the main thing in their life is to do "all" in the name of the salvation of his soul who is not other than the Lord bestowed immortality.
And the first of this "all" is to love God and is unquestioned to obey His ministers. So no one came to mind to challenge these primary, and if someone doubted, then the exit immediately suggested the clergy - to go to the holy places to strengthen in faith.
Concerning Christian pilgrims then up to the beginning of high, or classical, medieval (and this is about the XI-XII centuries) for them there was only Three particularly significant shrines To which many pilgrims are fixed all year round, extremely emaciated due to deprivation and hiking difficulties:
holy Land (until 1948 - the former territory of Palestine) - There, in Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem, there were such major Christian shrines, like Calvary, the coffin of the Lord, the Gefsemic Garden, the Anointing Stone, etc.;
Rome - The generally accepted European pilgrimage center, where there are seven Christian shrines, including the burial places of the apostles (Peter, Paul), twenty-two Roman pontiffs and the Holy Martyrs (Lavrentia, Sebastian);
North Spain - In the city of Santiago de Compostela (the capital of autonomy Galicia) there is one of the largest pilgrimage shrines in Europe - the Grand Santiaig Cathedral. According to legend, it was here, in the Iberian shores, in the first half of the 9th century, the remains of Jacob Zeyadeeva, the apostle and the nearest student of Christ were discovered.
Later, at the middle of the Middle Ages, for pilgrimage to the Holy Land and some European relics began to be created specially organized Pilgrims Societies who could have different attributes, but united for such communities emblem : Round bivalve marine sink, often used on travel as compact road dishes.
This emblem, being a kind of symbol of holiness, was traditionally called " Holy Jacob's scallop "
On the road, Pilgrims wore her in sight, attaching to the head of the head, and on his return home climbed the shell into the wall of their dwelling, so that she serve as a clear evidence that the owner of this house was very rare and pious, because he had journey to shrines.
Pilgrims in other religions
Believers, to which denominations they would neither belonged to, are worshiped not only for the sake of worship of shrines - they are all looking for peace of mind and seek to gain at least short-term unity with close people.
In principle, there is no special difference in pilgrimage wanders of adherents of various facilities, except holy places and relics differ .
So, in particular, for Muslim Pilgrimov There are, besides Jerusalem, two more centers of attraction - Mecca with their oppreed mosque (Great Al-Haram) and immersed in the Green Medina with his famous Al-Masdzhid-en-Nabavi mosque from gentle-rose granite, where, according to legend, lived, preached and then the prophet Muhammad himself was buried.
Residents of Indian subcontinent - Almost all Hinduses, and in this tricky is considered to be a great merit to make a pilgrimage in one of the seven cities who have been revered as sacred for several millennia as sacred because there was and for some time the Supreme Creator Vishnu lived:
Every pilgrim, who will be able to visit at least one of the seven families of habitat of a four-handed deity, will find clarity and light (or, as many of the Indians call, "Special Spiritual Liberation").
A little different things are things with Buddhism (that's what?) And Lamaism . Here there is such a thing as bark - Ritual bypass of the holy place or any shrine.
In fact, it is just walking with prayers around the relic or silent movement clockwise in a chain of other Bogomoltsev. For Buddhists, this ritual is also used as pilgrimage, and as one of the types of meditative practice.
Besides Buddhist Pilgrimov In particular, there are attraction places, and the main one is a monastery of Jokang in the city of Lhasa, the historical capital of Tibet.
The temple complex on the territory of the monastery takes over 25 thousand square meters, and not only prayer drums are placed on the ritual path around it, but also many trading rows capable of providing almost two million pilgrims who coming here each year.
Instead of imprisonment
Well, I hope, we figured out quite detailed with the direct value of the concept of "pilgrim": who are such that forces these people to go to hard hiking, where they keep the way and that in the end find.
As for the generalized value of this term, many of the pragmatic contemporaries make pilgrimages, albeit not in the sense, how his religious pilgrims do.
But nevertheless, almost any person can be called a pilgrim Because each of us has our own shrines and each of us is making their own - personal, individual - travel, because we are all, like the wandering mantis, strive for spiritual perfection.
Good luck to you! Seeing fast meetings on the pages of KtonanovenKogo.ru
Pilgrim - This is a religious person, a traveler who makes pilgrimage to holy places.
The meaning of the word pilgrim.
The term "Pilgrim" is not too common in the post-Soviet space, the word pilgrim is more familiar and understandable for us. By and large, these are two terms that designate one concept.
When mentioning the word Pilgrim, most of us have an image of a person in black clothes and a funny hat, which goes into his wagon and preaches the Word of God, everyone who meets on his way. In part, it is, it is only not worth binding it only to the Christian religion. In general, Pilgrims (pilgrims) are present in almost all religions and they appeared long before the emergence of Christianity.
The image of a classic pilgrim in our presentation inspired to us by cinema.
In modern times, Pilgrims can be called Muslims who make pilgrimage to Mecca.
The set of figures meets the visitor at the entrance to any Gothic Temple. These are the figures of saints, martyrs, hermits. Among them - the figure of Pilgrim, Pilgrim, Wanderer. This is a man with a staff in his hand, in a broad-breasted hat and a long raincoat. And as a distinctive detail - St. Jacob's seashell, attached to clothes or hats fields.
Who are Pilgrims?
In the Middle Ages, the word "pilgrim" was used in two values: in the narrow sense, Pilgrim (pilgrim) is the one who goes to holy places, which in Europe and around the world there were many.
But there is also another, deeper meaning of this word: Pilgrim, Peregrinus. - This is a person who is always on the way, the one for whom the path is all life. And this is no longer just a trip from the point to the point, not just a fascinating movement in space - it is always a trip to the depths of your soul, it is always a meeting with yourself.
Where did the pilgrim roads?
First of all, pilgrims went to the Holy Earth, Palestine to worship the places where the evangelist history comes to life.
Another important goal is the Great Rome, the place where the apostles of Peter and Paul have finished their martyrdom.
And finally, the third road, the famous and now - Camino de Santiago, leads to the Spanish city of Santiago de Compostela, the city of Apostle James.
Why did this city become the place of the famous pilgrimage?
According to legend, after the Apostle Jacob was captured and killed by order Herod Agrippes, the students put his body into the boat and let the waves of the Mediterranean Sea.
The boat sailed to the shores of Spain, the remains of the apostle were greeted by Christians and were buried in Galicia.
For several centuries, the fate of the remains was unknown. But the time came when the saint's relics were acquired. A wonderful vision was revealed by a poleo hermit called: an unusually bright celestial shine, a shining star, which pointed to the burial place.
The city, based on this place after some time, got the name of the compostela - Sampus Stella, which is in translation from Latin means "star field".
Going down, pilgrims refused much. As in those distant times, and now it is not easy to decide to leave the usual life, family, work, friends - everything you got used to.
Not just every day to overcome many miles of the road, erasing into the blood tired legs. And then even the most modern equipment will not save - this is not avoiding. But the harder to save in the soul of the goal for which you went to the road, for which it is ready to undergo all the long journey.
Dream, hope, faith, prayer - these are the pilgrim's real satellites, both in the time of the kings and now. And yet - the road. She herself leads, instructs and teaches someone who decided to make her first step on it.
Who went to the pilgrimage?
People are completely different. Among the pilgrims, we will meet the great king with their retinue, educated monk and a scientist who left their celle, a poor knight, who dreams about the exploits, and a simple person, who even had nothing to take.
As a rule, they tried to travel by groups - alone simply do not master the heavy and dangerous road. Solving Psalms, pilgrims moved from the city to the city, from the chapel to the chapel, stopping in miraculous sources, finding hospitality in the monasteries.
Pilgrims were transferred from the south to the north and from the east to the west of the legend and songs, a variety of information and news.
The famous "Canterbury's stories" of Chosera is written just from the face of such pilgrims, a lot of people experienced, many seen and ready to share their experience ...
How did you recognize the pilgrims?
As a rule, pilgrims were dressed in dark rains. Over time, the raincoats were unpaved in the sun, they changed the color, but continued to warm on the road, and cold nights often served as a blanket. On the head - a wide-headed hat that protects against rain or hot sun. In the hand, a staff or a stick, a small kitomka by the shoulders.
Symbol of pilgrim - shell, two-sided shell-scallop. Often they were picked up on the shore and separated into two parts. One concave served for drinking and eating, the other, more flat mounted on the fields of hats, staff or a raincoat. On our pilgrim - as many as three shells.
Now on the path of Camino de Santiago there is another distinguishing mark - Palsport Pilgrim. Throughout the journey in each city or place overnight, the pilgrim can put a special seal in this passport confirming his stay.
Dangers on the way. Protection
In those distant times, the path of the pilgrim was dangerous and unpredictable. Thick forests, deserted fields, no overnight stay, freak bad weather ... And even robbers and robbers that slept at a dark angle. From hundreds of walking pilgrims, only a third returned home.
Starting from the XII century, knights of the pilgrimage roads were designed to guard the pilgrimage roads. They accompanied the groups of pilgrims or summary, protecting against all the misfortunes. The Templars built their commanders at a distance of the daily walk. These strange houses gave the tired travelers a unpretentious bed, bread and heat of the hearth. And every team is also a temple where the traveler could pray for a happy ending of the journey.
How did the pilgrims recognize the path?
First, according to the stories of those who have already passed this expensive. And then the first guidebooks appeared - they told about those places where the road passes, about the customs of local residents, about where they can be drunk with clean water from the spring, and where it is notable to dine. Now on each fork of Santiago's path, you can see such a sign - the rotated shell or the rays of the stars, which indicate the direction of movement.
When the travelers finally come to the cherished goal of their travel - the Cathedral of St. Jacob, they are waiting for an exciting event - participation in the solemn service for pilgrims. Service begins every noon. To this hour, all the arrived pilgrims gather in the temple and pronounce gratitude prayers for being enough forces to pass the way of Santiago to the end.
Then they descend down the steps to the ark with the hovered relics to confirm the sincere intention to maintain all the experience in their lives that they received on the way.
Does the path of the pilgrim ends?
Not! In the tradition of Pilgrimov - to continue your walking trip to Cape Finisterre - one of the most western points of the Pyrenean Peninsula. The name of the cape happened from Latin Finis. Terrae. - Edge of the Earth.
By tradition, at sunrise, you need to burn your old clothes, and then dip your legs into the ocean ice water. The birth of the new Sun, how can it imply better symbolize new dreams, hopes and the beginning of a new stage in life.
Complete by pilgrimage is very important for a person. Both in distant times and now. It is on this path that a person will know himself, learns to feel part of the world, learns to be responsible for everything that happens to him.
For this, it is not necessary to belong to a particular religion.
It is much more important to have inside yourself those top and real goals, which will allow moving forward, change the world itself and change the world around.
Pilgrim - What is it? Everyone at least once in life, but heard this word. Maybe on TV or from parents. But do everyone know his true meaning? But with him a whole reservoir of medieval culture is associated. Although some of the young will say that this is the name of the rock band or feature film.
Turn to dictionary
In general, Pilgrims are, of course, Wanderers. Travelers in holy places, deeply believers. The word happened from Latin Peregrinus, which means "wound" translated. In Tsarist Russia, this word was also encountered, but more often he was modified in Pilgrimis.
Funny Russian option. Called so pious mighty wanderer. They were greeted about him and fairy tales. In principle, Pilgrim is synonymous with the words "pilgrim".
In the modern world there are also pilgrims. Christians travel through holy places to this day. But about it later. And every Muslim must at least once make a pilgrimage to Mecca. In addition, a significant part of the inhabitants of the United States considers themselves as descendants of pilgrims. Why?
Excursion in history
In the strict sense, the words of fathers-pilgrims are not at all pilgrims, and they were not sent to holy places. In fact, it was so nicknamed some of the first Europeans landed and founded the colony in the territory, which is now called the United States of America. And it happened at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Then, in 1620, the group of British Puritan decided to find himself a new place to live for the Egnolism of the Anglican Church. As part of a hundred two people (among which there were also women and children) they went to the shores of the new world. But it was difficult to travel in those days, and therefore they enlisted support for a large trading company. Not free of course.
They had to work out their own way. However, it turned out that after a long journey, the ship was not at all where it was planned. And, not without thinking, Puritans founded the settlement on the site of modern Plymouth. They were the first migrants in the history of New England. And deciding that once in the place of which they agreed, they still did not fall, travelers considered themselves completely free from any obligations. They signed the so-called Maiflauer Agreement. The latter was a colony self-government agreement.
Life, of course, was not easy. The first winter suffered only half of the immigrants. Almost immediately began a collision with local Indian tribes. But thanks to the more perfect weapon, the Europeans managed to gain themselves in a busy territory. Not all of the natives, of course, were hostile to them. One of the Indians who later became a legend, even helped settle the survival. He taught Puritan to grow cereals on the new place for them.
Successfully selected Word
But why did all these people become called pilgrims? And it all started with the "red sense". In 1793, at the festival dedicated to the first migrants, the Monk Father Ch. Robbins read the sermon. In it, he called the colonists who arrived there, the fathers-pilgrims. His thought, in principle, clear: People were looking for freedom of religion. And they committed a long and difficult journey. Then this name has passed on politicians. And after a while, English poetess F. D. Hamanz wrote her poem "Arrival of fathers-pilgrims in New England". But this, of course, is not the whole story. The first real pilgrims appeared in medieval Europe. They traveled mainly to the Holy Land, in Jerusalem.
Pilgrim road - what is it?
She is also called the path of St. Jacob. And she leads pilgrims around the world to the grave of this apostle, which is located in Spanish Santiago de Compostela. But there is another way of pilgrims. So called an ancient stone road in Jerusalem. For her, believers went to a religious rite.
A long time ago
What was so famous for this person, that thousands of pilgrims, going to him, was able to stop the black plague. The latter, as you know, killed half the population of medieval Europe. Real pilgrims are no doubt already know.
If you believe legend, the apostle of the martyrdom died in 44 years from the Nativity of Christ on the Holy Land. And his remains were placed in the boat and released in the Mediterranean Sea. It so happened that this ship nailed to the shores of Spain, where the above-mentioned saint and preached during his lifetime. There they counted a miracle. True, it happened only in 813. Then, on the shore, the ark with the hovered relics found a monk-hermit named Pelaio.
After half a century, in this place by the decree of the king of Alphonse, the Church was built. And the place was called not otherwise as a compostela ("place marked with the star").
There are legends that the apostle was miraculously and helped during the battles with the Moors. One way or another, but he began to be considered a patron of Spain. During the lifetime of Holy Jacob, he also committed a distant journey as Pilgrim. What this will make it the patron saint of all pilgrims, he could hardly then assume. He, by the way, passed from the Holy Land to Spain.
Meanwhile, the city is already a compostela, because one of the twelve apostles was buried on its territory, it becomes a shrine not only Spain, but also the entire Catholic world.
There is a legend that the emperor Carlo Great dreamed of sleep. In it, the Lord showed him the road to shrine - the Milky Way, which was going through France and Spain. And God commanded him to clean the way of Pilgrims from Mavrov. The latter was considerable to establish a tradition. The emperor sent troops there and, might say, paved the road.
And when in the twelfth century, the Spanish Crown was established by the military-knightly Order of St. James, whose task was to defend pilgrims, this path became even more "comfortable."
The compostele was equated to Rome and Jerusalem - Dad Calikist's second gave the believer, going there, the right to indulgence. Since then, the place has become very popular. Pilgrims went there from all over the world. And the Pilgrims road overtook churches and stories, which had a positive effect on the economic situation of the region.
Meanwhile, the road was laid in such a way that the pilgrims on the way could visit other shrines - the relics of the Holy Faith, Mary Magdalena and many others. Purchased on this road and famous pilgrims. This is, for example, Bishop Godeskalk.
In the nineteenth century, the road was re-opened. And every year the number of pilgrims walking through it, only grows.
The road begins in southern France and Pyrenees, it is possible to go through Ronseval Pass or Sommeport. But in Spain, this path passes from Pamplona to Santiago de Compostela. It is still called "dear French kings."
In the Middle Ages, pilgrims, going there, were focused on the Milky Way. His, according to legend, fucked in the sky himself holy. So he showed the way to Emperor Carlo Great. Therefore, this accumulation of stars in the sky is also often called "through St. Jacob."
So, Pilgrim - who is it? First of all, a believer. He has a goal and the path for which he must pass to achieve it. Pilgrims were in the past, there are in the present and, in all likelihood, will be in the future. Causes respect that many Americans remember and are proud that their ancestors were deeply believing people. Perhaps, the first migrants for distant planets will be spoiled.