Pergola is an invention with southern roots. In parks, gardens or near houses, light supports for climbing plants were arranged. They protected from the scorching sun, keeping life-giving coolness. Hot summers in our climate are no longer uncommon, so such structures are extremely popular in suburban construction. Read about how to make a pergola with your own hands in our article.
The design of the pergola is very similar to a lightweight shed or gazebo. Its characteristic features are repeating sections connected by horizontal beams. Another type of garden and park galleries, where the floors are arched, is called bersot. But often they are united by a common concept without specific distinctions.
The pergola can be free-standing or adjacent to the building. For manufacturing, wood, metal, or their combinations are used. Since the structure is light enough and has a low windage, an unnecessary strength resource is not required. Materials such as brick, concrete or stone are used for large structures with a long span.
Pergola in landscape design
An arched canopy, entwined with lush greenery, is a spectacular decoration of a personal or suburban area. In combination with flowering flower beds, stylish gazebos, openwork swings, it looks very picturesque and attractive.
With the help of a pergola, you can conditionally divide the site into zones, supplement it with an entrance group, a resting place, a gazebo with a barbecue. Under a lattice canopy, the area next to the pool or playground for children will become more comfortable and protected.
Garden furniture, textiles, lighting are used in the design of pergolas. You can arrange a small pond with a waterfall or fountain nearby.
The pergola can be designed in different styles:
Japanese - laconic form, calm colors;
oriental - an abundance of details, bright patterns, rich shades of green and red;
hi-tech - "high technologies", clear geometry, the predominance of metal, plastic;
country - closeness to nature, simplicity, natural materials and colors.
You can support the design concept of the pergola with the surrounding landscape, or vice versa, make it a bright expressive spot against a calmer background.
Choosing a pergola option
There are many types, shapes and designs of arched canopies, so when choosing, you need to consider:
size and shape;
location on the site;
features of materials for manufacturing;
the ability to equip with an awning;
whether it will serve as a support for plants or be used as a light shed;
preferred style and design.
Dimensions and shape
The structure can be very compact, designed to create shade over a bench or swing. In this case, it is made in the form of a lightweight lattice structure and is mounted on supports from a bar or metal profile pipes.
On large sites, pergolas of impressive size are installed, with powerful pillars and floor beams. For construction, brick, stone and concrete can be used as materials with a high margin of safety. The shape of the pergola is usually simple - square or rectangular. This is dictated by the features of the almost transparent structure, consisting of pillars and crossbars. The overlap can be flat, pitched or arched.
The best place
The location of the pergola should correspond to the task assigned to it. It can serve as a shelter for a resting place, be used for zoning, or simply decorate the site as a decorative object. In any case, it is advisable to install a canopy:
on a level or slightly elevated place with a beautiful view;
away from highways;
away from cesspools, toilets, compost heaps and other sources of odor.
If the arched structure will be attached to the house, you need to pay attention to drainage from the roof in case of rain or melting snow. For a pergola for grapes, keep in mind that this vine loves the sun, and there should not be tall trees nearby.
Support for plants
Perennial vines or herbaceous plants are often planted around pergolas:
In temperate climates, for the winter, some plants are removed from their supports and laid on the ground next to a shelter. In the southern regions, plantings remain for the winter in the open air.
The pergola can be used as a light canopy and without plants. It creates an openwork partial shade, and to protect it from bad weather, it is equipped with a folding awning.
Materials for pergolas
Since the structure is operated outdoors, all materials must be resistant to humidity, temperature fluctuations and solar radiation. The choice of components depends on the structure and size of the structure, floor loads, and architectural design.
This is the most common material for making light arched canopies. It is easy to process, inexpensive, and you can very quickly assemble a pergola from it with your own hands.
For construction use:
timber for supports with a section from 50x50 mm to 150x150 mm;
board 25-50 mm thick;
thin slats for grilles;
Brick, blocks, monolithic reinforced concrete can be used as a foundation. All wood must be treated to prevent decay. Decorative and protective finishing is carried out with paints and varnishes for wood for outdoor use.
A kind of natural material is thermowood. It is produced by holding for 48-60 hours at temperatures up to 180-210 ° and a slight overpressure. As a result of thermal modification, excess moisture evaporates, resin (tar) is melted, and the tree becomes denser, acquires geometric stability, resistance to biological and atmospheric influences.
Thermowood pergolas are extremely durable, their service life increases significantly. Such material does not require regular processing from decay, retains its decorative effect for many years, but costs a little more than ordinary wood.
The steel frame is strong and durable. Profile pipes are the easiest to use. They can be welded together or bolted together.
The cross-section of the racks is selected based on the size of the pergola and the expected loads. The structure itself is light, its own weight is low, and it does not experience snow loads by definition. But for climbing plants, a margin of safety is needed, since the mass of greenery can reach several tens of kg per square meter, and the windage of a structure entwined with greenery increases significantly. If the support fails, the pillars may be skewed, deformed, and even the pergola may collapse.
The recommended minimum cross-section of pipes for racks is 30x30 cm. The overlap can be made both metal and wood. To protect against corrosion, the steel is periodically painted.
For the structure to serve for a long time, the foundation must be strong and resistant to decay. These conditions correspond to monolithic concrete pillars, which are poured into wells drilled in the ground. Gravel and sand are poured onto the bottom for drainage. This option works well for metal posts. When concreting, they are immersed in holes, and after the concrete has hardened, the pillars are ready.
On loose or wet soils, you can use cuttings of asbestos pipes or line the walls of the well with roofing material, etc. These materials will play the role of formwork and waterproofing when pouring the monolith. Foundation posts can be made of bricks, blocks or rubble stone. At the same time, the metal rack is placed inside and fixed.
If the posts are wooden, the base should not be in contact with the ground. So that the timber buried in the soil does not rot after 2-3 years, you can do the following:
burn the lower part on fire;
soak the base of the tree with hot bitumen mastic;
fix the racks above the ground to the finished concrete foundation.
The immersion depth of the pergola racks is calculated based on the amount of pinching, which ensures the perception of the lateral load. It should be at least 1/4 of the height of the post. The deepening of the foundation by 0.7-1.2 m is considered optimal.
How to make a pergola with your own hands: instructions for a summer resident
A light garden pergola for your favorite curly flowers can be quickly made yourself. Would need:
bar 50x50 mm;
slats 40x20 and 40x10 mm;
galvanized perforated corner for fasteners;
self-tapping screws galvanized for wood.
From a bar and slats, we assemble a frame for the future pergola from three parts. They are like stairs. We fasten the parts with self-tapping screws and corners.
We process all details with impregnation. You can use wood tinting with moisture resistant compounds. We fix the structures in the form of the letter P.
We install it vertically on the finished platform. We fasten with anchors. We decorate a wooden pergola with hanging baskets or pots with flowers.
In this way, you can decorate paths to the garden, entrance area or porch.
With the help of this simple design, you can zone the site, fence off not very attractive places and create a small vertical flower garden. For work you will need:
timber 50x50 cm;
board 25x15 cm;
Instead of a bar for racks, you can use a profile pipe.
We dissolve the boards into slats 50 mm wide.
We cover the whole tree with an antiseptic. For decorativeness and greater resistance to decay, lumber can be burned with a blowtorch.
If the slats are supposed to be painted, it is better to do this in 2 stages - before and after installation. This will ensure that the water entering the gaps does not cause rapid decay of the wood.
We collect the frame of the desired size from the bar. Now you need to calculate the distances between the slats of the oblique lattice and mark them with a pencil on the frame.
We lay the slats first in one direction and fasten them to the frame with self-tapping screws. You can nail it down, but then the strength of the joints is much worse. There is a risk that with fluctuations in humidity, the wood will dry out and the fasteners will loose.
Now we attach the slats in the other direction. You can install them vertically or at an angle, the main thing is to observe the angle and equal distances between the elements.
This option is more difficult to manufacture, and more materials will be required. The frame must be strong to support the weight of the swing. It needs to be well strengthened, since it has to perceive not only static, but also dynamic loads.
To make a pergola with a swing you will need:
timber 100x100 mm;
board 50x150 for load-bearing beams;
slats for lattices 20x40 mm;
bolts and screws for wood;
concrete for the foundation.
The work is carried out in several stages:
We dig or drill holes with a depth of 70-80 cm.
We pour crushed stone to the bottom, compact it.
We treat the wooden post at the base with liquid mastic, wait for it to dry.
We set the rack to the level in the well, fix and pour concrete.
We cut nests in the floor beams for transverse boards.
We raise the beams and fasten them with bolts to the posts.
Reinforce the upper belt with braces. To do this, we cut the boards at 45 ° and attach one end to the posts, and the other to the floor beams.
We collect the lattice from the slats, install them in the side openings.
You can make a swing yourself or buy a ready-made assembly. For fastening, we fasten a special suspension for the swing to the supporting beams, not to the transverse boards, they may not withstand. We pass the chains through the fasteners and hang the swing. We put soft pillows on the seat - and a comfortable pergola with a swing is ready. This design is a great resting place for all lovers of swing. It can be installed near the gazebo, pool, barbecue area and enjoy the results of your labor in the bosom of nature.
This building is solid and serious. It differs from the gazebo in the absence of a roof covering, the rest of the structures are made and mounted in almost the same way.
First, we leave a diagram or drawing of the pergola with dimensions. We buy materials:
timber 100x100 mm on racks;
board 50x150 for lintels and beams;
mountings for supports;
paint for decorative and protective treatment.
Before making a pergola with our own hands, we clean and level the site. We start marking the territory. First, mark two points along the longest side. Set aside the right angle using a large square. If not, you can use 2 roulettes. You will need knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem and a calculator.
Here's how to do it. From one point, approximately perpendicularly lay the width of the pergola. From the other - the diagonal of the rectangle (or square). One of the vertices of the figure is located at the intersection of the pieces of the circles. We drive in a peg.
Similarly, we are looking for the second point. We control the equality of the sides and diagonals.
Now we drill wells with a hand or gasoline drill to a depth of 80-100 cm. We install a piece of polypropylene pipe inside. She is not afraid of moisture and frost. We procure fasteners for racks. This will be a threaded stud and two corner brackets on one side.
Fill the pipes with concrete and insert the studs directly into the grout. The bar for the racks must be torn off and installed strictly vertically in the mount on the hairpin. For this, plank jibs are used, one end of which is fixed to the stake driven into the ground, and the other to the post. We clamp everything with clamps, screw the screws and bolts into the perforation of the lower mount. After the concrete has hardened, the post is securely positioned.
On the top of the posts, we mount a strapping made of a 50x150 mm board using self-tapping screws.
We cut the ends of the beams for the ceiling with a bevel to give the structure a decorative effect. We raise the boards and fasten them to the strapping with self-tapping screws, positioning the fasteners at an angle.
We cut down the braces at 45 ° - pieces of boards to strengthen the upper belt. Each rack requires 2 braces. We install them using long wood screws.
After strengthening the frame from above, you can proceed to the lower strapping. We fasten 4 beams 100x100 along the bottom of the pergola, driving the self-tapping screw first into the end through the rack, and then 2 more at an angle.
We paint our building with waterproof wood paint. The pergola is ready with your own hands. On the sides, you can fix decorative camouflage nets or gratings, plant hanging roses around, and put comfortable wicker furniture inside.
A pergola made of wood with your own hands allows you to refine the site, create the necessary shade or support for climbing plants. Such small architectural forms are made from different materials. When choosing the size and type of construction, the dimensions of the site, the combination with other buildings, must be taken into account.
Types of pergolas
DIY pergolas for a garden can be free-standing structures, connect two buildings, adjoin a house or a fence. If you choose the latter option, then it is enough to build two supports and a canopy.
Pergolas differ in purpose and design features:
with a swing;
crate for climbing plants;
screen - used to decorate the entrance, zoning;
tunnel - creating a beautiful passage between buildings;
pergola with benches for organizing a recreation area;
visor for shading windows;
arch for highlighting the entrance area, connecting buildings.
Wooden pergolas are often made in the form of a rectangle or square. Such configurations are easier to do by hand. Less common are round and triangular structures, complex shapes.
Projects with drawings and dimensions of wooden pergolas
An important point in the manufacture of a pergola from wood with your own hands is to determine the size of the structure. Standard width 1.5 m, length 2.5 m.
Comment! When drawing up a project, it is important to include other structures in it. This is done in order not to disturb the harmony of the site.
You can draw up a project with a drawing yourself or use ready-made options. To implement complex decisions on paper, it is better to turn to specialists.
The simplest option is a classic wooden pergola with four supports.
Another popular option is the pergola arch. Its size can be adjusted depending on the characteristics of the climbing plants that will decorate the structure.
Pergolas with swings are also in demand. They are perfect for creating a romantic environment, they are adored by children of any age.
What can be used to build a pergola
Pergolas are made from different materials. It is important to consider not only the desired appearance and functionality of the structure, but also the expected service life. Supports are usually made of logs, timber, several boards fastened together. You can make a crate from a picket fence.
The tree is sensitive to moisture, therefore, you should choose the most resistant to decay species - oak, larch, pine. Willow is suitable for a canopy.
The service life of a structure largely depends on the hardness of the wood used. For aesthetics and increase resistance to adverse conditions, a decorative coating should be made. For this, stain, varnish, paint are suitable. Resistance to moisture and decay will be enhanced by treatment with special antiseptics.
Wood can be combined with other materials to increase the strength of the structure or reduce the cost of it. It is good to use metal pipes as supports.
Where is the best place to place the pergola
There are many options for placing a wooden pergola on the site. To create the perfect vacation spot, you should pay attention to the following options:
canopy near a natural or artificial reservoir, fountain;
construction in the barbecue area;
location near the gazebo or terrace or an extension to them;
placement in the middle of the garden, next to the trees.
If the site is small, then space saving is important. In this case, a wooden pergola can be built close to a fence, house or other structure. If the entrance to the building is located close to a fence or gate, then it is appropriate to connect them with a canopy.
How to make a foundation for a pergola
If you build a light wooden pergola and do not overload it with climbing plants, then the foundation is optional. It is enough to steadily bury the pillars in the ground. In other cases, a strip or columnar base is made.
The strip foundation is appropriate for permanent structures. The algorithm is simple:
Dig a trench. Orient the depth to the type of soil and relief, but do not make more than 0.4 m.
Lay crushed stone, tamp.
Make the formwork.
Wait until it solidifies completely.
The foundation for a wooden pergola with your own hands, as in the photo, is also suitable for a gazebo. You can build both structures by combining them into a single composition.
The columnar foundation is simple, reliable, and requires less costs. Support points are made 2-6, depending on the type of construction. The algorithm is simple:
Make indentations. It is more convenient to use a drill, you can use a shovel.
Pour crushed stone.
Install the rack mountings.
How to make a pergola for climbing plants from a tree with your own hands
The wooden climbing pergola can be built in different ways. For a simple design with your own hands you will need:
four massive beams for racks;
two boards for horizontal beams;
boards or bars for crossbars;
fasteners - screws, nails, staples;
side rails (optional);
DIY step-by-step instructions for a wooden pergola:
Install supports, fix with concrete.
Secure the horizontal beams. Fix them with staples for strength.
Fasten the cross members. Place the boards on the edge, for better fixation with the beams, make grooves in them.
If the plans are to cover not only the canopy, but also the sides of the pergola with climbing plants, they put ready-made trellis panels or make them with their own hands from slats. Instead, or in addition, you can make several horizontal bars for hanging pots.
How to make a wooden arch pergola with your own hands
Making a pergola in the form of an arch with your own hands implies many options. Among the variety of forms, it is easier to build a portal or a trapezoidal structure. It is more difficult to make a classic arch in the form of a semicircle or an ellipse. This will require:
four beams 100 × 100 mm;
two roof boards;
slats for the formation of side trellises;
thick cardboard or fiberboard;
You can build a wooden pergola in the form of a classic arch with your own hands like this:
Install the supports.
Make a template. For a semicircular arch, it will resemble a protractor.
Saw the boards into pieces.
With the help of fasteners, make two blanks (each of four parts), in shape as close as possible to a semicircle.
Using a jigsaw, give both blanks an even rounded shape using a template.
Make crossbars between the arches from rails or bars.
Install the resulting canopy on the supports.
Make a crate from the slats between the supports, creating a trellis for the plants.
If a slight bend is enough, then the arches can be made solid by sawing out of boards of sufficient width. This option is much stronger.
It is much easier to build a pergola-arch in the form of a trapezoid or portal with your own hands. In the second case, the algorithm resembles the manufacture of a classical-type structure. Bars can be used to create a trapezoid.
How to make a pergola with a swing with your own hands
A wooden pergola with a swing is multifunctional - it can be built as a resting place, a support for climbing plants. The structure can be stationary or collapsible. In the first case, it is necessary to make a foundation or dig in supports into the ground. This design is more reliable.
Collapsible structures mean that you can divide the entire structure into components or just disconnect the swing. In the first case, the service life is extended, since individual segments are easy to store in order not to be exposed to temperature extremes and high humidity.
Algorithm for making a pergola with a swing:
Build racks. For greater strength, each element can be made from 2-3 glued boards.
Fasten the crossbeams. At the bottom, connect only the sidewalls, at the top along the entire perimeter.
For stability, fasten the cross-members and stands with metal corners or wooden jibs.
Install the middle beam at the top. It is to her that the swing will be attached. It should be as strong as possible, like the crossbars on which it is fixed. For reliability, it is better to make a thorn-groove connection.
Make a frame for a swing. The bottom and back should form an obtuse angle, otherwise it will be uncomfortable to sit.
Sheathe the frame with planks. You can place them back to back or at a distance.
Secure the swing.
For climbing plants, a crate of wooden slats should be made on the sidewalls. It will give the structure additional strength.
The swing to the pergola can be attached in different ways. More often they use ropes, chains, metal pipes. The latter option implies the need for welding.
The swing must be safe. Contact points must be sanded, painted if desired, varnished or stained. You can sew a cover or pillows.
How to make a pergola with a crate with your own hands
You can build a pergola with a lattice from wood with your own hands in different ways. Often, a trellis is made separately on the frame, then attached to the main structure. It can be a classic pergola, arched, with a swing or a bench. Dimensions are not important.
Another option is to incorporate wooden lathing into the pergola manufacturing process. You can fix the sidewalls of the trellis between the boards or beams, which will simultaneously serve as supports.
Less often, the crate is made not as part of the pergola, but as a continuation of its wall. Such a trellis plays the role of a fence or partition for zoning.
Making a wooden crate is easy:
Construct a frame of four strips in the form of a rectangle or square. Use screws to fix the ends.
Attach the strips diagonally at equal intervals.
Turn the frame over.
Fasten the slats diagonally by laying them perpendicular to the already fixed slats.
According to this algorithm, a wooden crate with diagonal cells is made. The slats can be fixed strictly horizontally or vertically. The cells in this case will be square or rectangular.
With your own hands you can make various lathing out of wood. The combination of slats of different thicknesses and even colors will look original. The frame can be filled not symmetrically, but chaotically, in the form of a classic or inverted trapezoid, triangle.
How to build a wooden pergola with a bench in the country with your own hands
With your own hands from wood, you can build a pergola with 1-3 benches, on two, four or six supports, classic or corner. Manufacturing algorithm:
Install four stands.
Connect the racks at the top with boards or beams.
Make a crate or other desired canopy.
On the sides, horizontally attach to the racks along a bar - supports for the future bench. The height is oriented towards the convenience for the main users.
From a bar of 40 × 40 mm, make a rectangular frame for a seat.
Fasten 1-2 transverse boards to strengthen the frame.
Cover the seat with boards. You can place them along or across.
Install the seat, fix it.
Attach two beams horizontally to the back posts of the pergola - the basis for the back of the bench.
Emboss the base with boards.
How to make a corner pergola yourself
Pergolas of this type are conveniently placed in the corner of the site, used for zoning. A structure on seven supports with gratings for climbing plants can be built with your own hands according to the following algorithm:
Make four rectangular frames with lathing.
Fasten two frames between the beams, which will be the supports of the pergola.
Attach two more frames to one beam, creating a right angle. Secure the free sides with supports.
Connect the supports at the top with boards.
Make a canopy out of boards, lattice, or in another way.
A canopy can be constructed by connecting the outer supports to form a rectangle. This will provide better shading.
Corner pergola can be supplemented with 1-2 benches. If you put a table in front of them, you get an excellent area for rest and eating.
A do-it-yourself pergola made of wood serves as a resting place, a support for climbing plants, a way of zoning a site. You can build such a structure in the form of an arch, supplement it with a swing, a bench, and make an angular structure. It is better to get started after drawing up a project with a drawing.
DIY pergola: instructions for building a wooden pergola at a summer cottage (200 photo ideas)
Real estate with a private house gives a reason to build a gazebo against the backdrop of a pond, planting or forest. But it so happens that the gazebo has already been built or requires too much money. Then you can limit yourself to the pergola.
A pergola is a semi-open gazebo with windows and walls that partially or completely fill the structure from several sides. Moreover, the walls themselves are made in the form of a crate. Therefore, the corresponding structure serves as a shelter only in the warm season. The target audience is wondering how to make a pergola with their own hands so that it can be used not only in summer?
The answer lies in a comprehensive modernization:
Covering the truss with an awning or euro-slate;
Wall decoration so-called flexible windows or siding;
Installation of windows into open window openings;
Installation of a furnace inside the structure.
Still, the thematic shelter is more suitable for summer vacations. Moreover, neither rain nor heat will interfere with this rest. The thing is that the pergola has a lattice roof that can be covered with an awning or tarpaulin. Such a coating does not exert a great load on the structure, because the pergola with its own hands has supporting frames - vertical pillars, which are sheathed with crate and roof truss.
Materials for the construction of a pergola
The creation of a pergola requires a minimum of effort, because it is assembled mainly from ready-made building materials - pillars in the form of bars, lathing from slats or boards. Moreover, the origin of building materials is different:
Woodland - boards, slats, bars, logs;
Metal - rounded or shaped pipes, channels, corners;
Plastic - combined or one-piece profile.
Basically, the pergola is made of wood, which is easy to handle and promote a natural look. But if the users of the future shelter demand reliability or low cost, then a metal or plastic pergola will be the best option.
The pergola is inferior to the traditional gazebo in terms of strength and reliability. However, the semi-open design has some advantages:
Reducing the consumption of building materials to a minimum;
Fast assembly, which is largely due to the lack of a foundation for the structure;
Suitability for dismantling, modernization and decoration with climbing plants;
The ability to serve as intended anywhere, depending on the type of design.
And yet, before organizing a pergola, you need to understand that insects, wind and rainfall seep through its holes. Whether it is worth upgrading the project in the future to improve the level of comfort - everyone decides for himself.
Purpose of the pergola
It is clear that the thematic structure serves as a secluded shelter from external stimuli. But do not forget that the pergola, depending on its location, can serve:
An extension to the house to hide a worn facade or serve as an additional veranda for relaxation;
An island gazebo for secluded relaxation overlooking a picturesque panorama;
Separate corridor to complement the path with a canopy
Corner canopy for filling two fences in the place of their joining.
In the latter case, you can use both a square and a triangular arbor. The corridor is a canopy gazebo that stretches right above the path. The main thing is that each given project serves as a support for climbing plants. And landscape decoration is also the purpose of the pergola.
Optimal pergola area
Since the pergola is a semi-open summer structure, it does not require a large area by default. Step-by-step instructions, drawings and dimensions of the pergola show that 6-8 sq.m. sufficient for the following purposes:
Operation by 4-6 users - sitting or lying rest, eating, cooking (if there is a brazier inside the structure);
Installation of the barbecue, provided that there is a place for rest and movement inside the shelter;
Growing plants inside and outside the gazebo (in particular, we are talking about hanging pots with flowers or planting grapes and other plants that will curl outside on the crate).
4 square meters is enough for someone to have a short rest under a canopy. Usually, corner and corridor pergolas are allocated with such a small internal space.
A traditional pergola is rectangular or square. But you should not use simple diagrams and drawings if the project itself is simple. The fact is that the shape of the pergola is selected depending on its purpose:
Rectangle - relevant for an extension to a house or corridor;
Square - well suited to a separate island;
Triangle - Suitable for filling corners between rails.
Also, the pergola can be made oval if there are many similar structures around it. Usually the original project requires the use of non-traditional building materials - plastic, metal, braid.
Lumber for wooden pergola
If the target audience settled on wood, then you need to understand that it can be a processed timber or a rounded log. The first option, thanks to its smooth surface and pretreatment, is wear-resistant and easy to finish. A do-it-yourself pergola made of wood in the form of logs seems ethnic and nothing more.
Also, when choosing lumber for a pergola, you will have to take into account the following points:
Conifers are more moisture resistant than deciduous ones, and therefore are more suitable for the construction of a wooden pergola (the main thing is that the breed is strong - cedar, larch);
The fewer knots in the array, the less likely the workpiece will break (it is desirable that there are no knots at all);
For the supporting frame (pillars, rafters), it is recommended to use bars or logs with a large section, while the sheathing can come from thin boards and battens;
Before installation and assembly, lumber should be stored outdoors for 1-3 months so that the finished shelter does not shrink.
Pretreatment of lumber contributes to the minimum deformation of the structure. In particular, we are talking about laminated veneer lumber. But for such a light construction as a wooden pergola with your own hands, it is better to use a minibar.
A finished semi-open gazebo, sheathed with crate, has a weight of no more than 300 kg. Most often, the corresponding figure is about 150 kg. Therefore, instead of columnar, strip and pile foundations, it is beneficial to arrange a pergola on the following substrates:
10-15 cm drainage layer of sand and gravel;
Reinforced concrete pipes into which the vertical pillars of the structure are cut directly.
If the drainage layer and tires are above the ground, then the pipes must be buried to a depth of 1.5-2 meters. With them, the finished structure becomes less suitable for dismantling. A do-it-yourself pergola for roses is also difficult to disassemble because of the thorns of the plant. On the other hand, users and flora place a lot of stress on the structural frame and foundation, respectively. Therefore, the pillars embedded in reinforced concrete pipes are quite relevant for organizing a heavy-duty semi-open gazebo, especially if in the future it will undergo modernization.
DIY pergola construction
Even in comparison with fully open gazebos, the pergola is easily and quickly erected. And if the supporting substrate has already been arranged, then it is not necessary to watch the construction video. The target audience will have to carry out just a few activities:
Fastening the bottom harness;
Installation or deepening of load-bearing vertical pillars;
Installation of the upper trim over the pillars;
Fastening the rafters to the upper strapping, followed by filling the rafter truss with a crate;
Filling empty openings with slats for zoning future walls and window openings;
Fastening the lathing to the bearing posts and slats;
Organization of plank or stone flooring;
Covering the construction truss with an awning or tarpaulin;
Window openings should be located on the side from which a good view is visible. The lathing should completely fill the north or south walls so that the above step-by-step instructions do not turn into drafts or hell during the heat.
Climbing plants are the best flora for a pergola. Moreover, thematic shrubs can provide universal benefits:
Grapes - changes color depending on the season, pleases with the autumn harvest;
Climbing rose - good for its scarlet inflorescences, protects with thorns from the invasion of wild animals;
Ipomoea purple - stands out with purple flowers, grows quickly, has a minimal load on the frame;
Moonflower - blooms only at dusk, therefore it is relevant for dark places;
Clematis - pleases with hundreds of inflorescences, does not require good lighting and super-moist soil;
Hops - are distinguished by their unpretentiousness, the presence of aromatic cones instead of flowers.
Although the thematic flora for the most part does not require maintenance, it is recommended to plant its seedlings in soil fertilized with organic matter. This requirement is especially welcomed by the do-it-yourself grape pergola. The optimal organic composition is 30% humus, 30% peat or sod, 20% native soil, 10% wood ash. If there is no organic fertilizer, then a mineral complex can be used.
Interior arrangement of the pergola
In order for a pergola for plants with your own hands to please with a quality rest, its internal space must be equipped with certain products. At the same time, the latter should occupy only 20-40% of the area, so that you can move freely inside the pergola. As for the products, they are presented:
Furniture - a table, benches, chairs, stools;
Literally all of the listed items, with the exception of furniture, are arranged inside the pergola at will. Moreover, the furniture itself can be upholstered or wicker. The latter is easy to carry, while the former is convenient in itself. As for curtains and mosquito nets, they are relevant for projects with many window openings. Hanging pots and a hammock - for lovers of plants and leisurely relaxation. Lamps should be provided if the pastime inside the pergola takes place in the evening. It is better that the devices are rechargeable.
Another design that is appropriate inside the pergola is a brazier. True, for the oven you will have to arrange:
Additional monolithic foundation with ash pan;
Pipeline and chimney;
Brick screen to avoid fire and burns.
The grill itself can be metal or brick. The metal version stands on four legs and does not put a lot of stress on the flooring and foundation. However, it is recommended to shield it with a protective shield. A brick brazier does not require this screen, but it must be erected on a stable foundation. Therefore, for the target audience, instead of watching photos and videos on the selection and installation of a specific stove, it is easier to organize a firebox outside the shelter. The optimal distance between the pergola and the open stove is 5-7 m.
Photo of the pergola on the site
If you prefer climbing plants, you cannot do without a beautiful pergola in your garden. In the classic version, the support of such a structure consists of repeating arched sections connected by transverse beams. To design this light building, ampelous cultures and vines are used. Learn how to make a pergola out of wood and metal with your own hands, and try to build such a structure in your country house.
Making a pergola made of wood in the garden with your own hands (with photo)
In any garden, you can find a place to place light and graceful DIY garden pergolas. Plants climb along these beautiful frames, creating protective screens from the sun and wind. Externally, the pergola resembles an unfinished room - several racks support an uncovered lattice roof. However, nothing else is required: wire is pulled between the posts or trellises are stuffed, along which creeping plants rise, forming green walls.
You can build a pergola as a separate structure, or you can attach it to a building.
Look at the photo - often garden pergolas play the role of a green room in the patio:
Structurally, the pergola is a series of arches, frames or paired pillars placed one after another, tied on top with a crate, under which a resting place is located. The most widespread are wooden pergolas for summer cottages - with pillars, supports and lathing made of wood, as well as mixed ones - with metal or brick supports and wooden lathing. The best building material for a garden is traditionally wood. But with the appropriate layout, pergolas for summer cottages made of metal can also look extremely impressive.
How to build a pergola with your own hands, with a minimum of effort? The simplest structure can be assembled from two pairs of poles dug vertically into the ground, which are connected from above by longitudinal crossbars from poles with plank struts. A rare flooring (also made of poles) is laid across, forming a kind of roof frame. Poles are suitable for poles with a diameter of 8-15 cm, for beams - about 8 cm. Between the posts and the ceiling, you can stretch synthetic cords or wire to provide greater support to climbing plants, which eventually form a beautiful green tent. It should be borne in mind that such a pergola will harmoniously fit into the style of the site, where the structure of the house and the fence contains details from the poles.
Do-it-yourself pergolas located in an open area should be durable, since curling greenery creates a large load under the gusts of wind. In this case, beams with a cross section of 100 x 100 to 150 x 250 mm are usually used for the frame, and thinner moldings are chosen for filling roof elements and trellises. All lumber intended for work must be treated with protective agents against decay.
As you can see in the photo, when building a pergola with your own hands, it is important to observe the proportions:
The most appropriate height is within 220-250 cm. Too low pergola causes a feeling of crampedness and discomfort, however, an excessively high structure does not look better, although it must be remembered that, intertwined with climbing plants, it seems narrower and lower than it actually is.
In the manufacture of a pergola made of wood for a summer residence, the support pillars are installed in two rows at a distance of 2 m from each other. The distance between the rows is 2-2.5 m, but it can reach 3 m, it all depends on the general proportions of the garden. The sizes are due to the fact that the corresponding plants (grapes, lemongrass, actinidia, clematis, etc.) are planted near the pillars, which then braid the pergola.
The following is a step-by-step instruction on how to make a wooden pergola with your own hands, standing separately from the building.
How to build a beautiful wooden pergola in the garden with your own hands (with photo)
When making a pergola with your own hands, work begins with cutting grooves in the posts for the trellis crossbars, which is made of strips of 20 x 36 mm. When the pillars are glued with crossbars, girders from a bar with a section of 65 × 65 mm are attached to the upper ends of the pillars using oak dowels or dowels. The girders not only connect the pillars from above, but will also carry the roof. The overhangs of the purlin over the posts are supported by curly struts fastened with screws.
To build a pergola from wood with your own hands, vertical slats are attached to the crossbars, for which the corresponding grooves are selected in the beam. It is advisable that all intersections of the vertical and horizontal strips of the trellis are fixed with screws, otherwise, under the load of plants and gusts of wind, the strips may loosen and even break. Pre-drill a hole in the place where the screw is screwed in so that the rail does not burst. Now the assembled supports can be installed in place.
But, as shown in the photo, the supports for pergolas made of wood in the country house must first be processed in a special way so that they do not rot in the ground:
Wrapping the underground part of wooden pillars with tar paper or roofing felt will do nothing - moisture freely passes through the joints of the winding, no matter how many layers are wound. There is an old simple way to protect wooden poles from damage - to tar them, while observing a certain technology. But applying one of these methods without the assistance of the other does not give good results. The fact is that when charred without resinification, coal strongly absorbs air and moisture from the soil, thereby not only does not protect the inner parts of the tree from rotting, but, on the contrary, promotes rotting. In the case of resinification without charring, the resin does not adhere well to the tree and, as a result, will not give any serious protection. It happens completely differently if you combine both of these methods in such a way that first the underground or underwater part of the column is charred, and then, while the coal has not yet completely cooled down, saturate it with resin. When dry, volatile oils evaporate; a solid resin remains, which fills all the pores of the outer charred part of the tree, due to which a cover impervious to air and moisture is obtained, which perfectly protects against decay. As experience has shown, in addition to the underground, the part of the pillar that is above the ground or above the water, in turn, is subject to the most rapid decay, in order to avoid which it should also be subjected to the specified operation - joint charring and tarring ”.
This is a wonderful method of building a wooden pergola with your own hands, proven for centuries. Only instead of the resin that our ancestors used, now they use a mixture of molten bitumen with diesel fuel (diesel fuel). This mixture is even more effective. For the most refractory (5th) grade of bitumen, diesel fuel is required more, for the least refractory (3rd) - less. The solar-bitumen mixture is used in a hot, molten form, so the temperature of the burnt part of the pillars does not matter. The mixture can also be kerosene-bitumen or gasoline-bitumen, but in the latter case, cold, not molten bitumen dissolves with gasoline, and the mixture is applied cold. In any case, the carbon layer will be soaked through and through. At the same time, do not forget that the pillar should be charred and tarred to a height of at least 20-25 cm above the ground.
This method can be used when installing wooden support posts of any design. First, holes are dug and broken brick or stone is poured on their bottom for drainage.
Further, as shown in the photo, when making a pergola from a tree with your own hands, a post processed according to the above technique is installed in a pit, placed vertically along a plumb line and the pit is filled with concrete mortar:
The solution is rammed, and the top is shaped into a cone so that the rainwater flows off the column. It is even better to use special fasteners to install the posts. You can concrete or drive into the ground to a depth of about 60-70 cm trims of metal or asbestos-cement pipes and insert the pillars of the pergola into them. If the racks fail, it is easy to replace them with others.
For standard-section supports, special sleeves are sold that are driven into the ground. During concreting, an anchor fastener can be laid into the foundation post, to which the post is screwed. And if the structure is installed on a ready-made foundation, a U-shaped mount is screwed to the latter on dowels.
Their use for pergolas made of wood in the country, made by hand, not only simplifies installation, but also allows you to make the pillars half a meter shorter. It is only necessary to leave a small distance (up to 5 cm) between the concrete and the end of the pillar so that the tree does not rot.
The methods of attaching the purlins to the posts may be different. For example, you can tighten them to the top of the post with two diagonal bolts. The runs can be double - in the form of two planks attached to the posts on both sides. In any case, the fastening must be strong enough, so a layer of glue will not interfere with such connections.
From above to the girders, rafters of bars or flat edged boards are attached, which usually protrude 150-300 mm beyond the outer edge of the racks. Rafters from a square bar are nailed to the girders with galvanized nails. Further, for wooden pergolas made by hand, grooves are made from the boards in the rafters, into which the girders enter, and the nails are hammered obliquely. On the rafters, crate is stuffed from the same slats that were used for trellises on supports. If there are not enough slats for the upper crate, you do not need to do it. In this case, it is necessary to increase the number of rafters or pull a wire (cord) between them in order to create support for climbing plants that will rise to the roof along the trellises installed between the support posts.
If trellises are not provided in the pergola structure, the pillars themselves should be braided. To do this, vertical bars are nailed to the latter, and shingles are stuffed on them or a wire is pulled, making it easier for the plant stems to reach up.
Do-it-yourself pergolas in the garden are shown in the photo:
There are a lot of options for such pergolas in the country, built by your own hands. By changing the materials and shapes of the supports and the roof, you can create any design for the most demanding summer resident. After all, a pergola can be a romantic gazebo, and a summer kitchen, and a car shed, and a decorative path-corridor from the gate to the porch of the house. Around the support pillars, you can remove a brick or shell rock base and place benches on it; the combination of wood, stone and flowering plants looks very beautiful.
Below you can find a photo and step-by-step instructions for making a do-it-yourself pergola, adjacent to the house.
Wooden pergola in the country with their own hands, adjacent to the house (with photo)
The pergola above the terrace or porch is very beautiful. In this case, it plays the role of an extension to the house in order to refine its appearance and create comfort in the area in front of the entrance.
The design of this DIY adjoining pergola is very simple. To build it, you will need several wooden racks (beams) and boards for rafters and top strapping. Part of the pergola is covered with a transparent roof so that the bad weather does not catch you by surprise.
For the construction of the pergola, you will need the following basic details:
All parts are made of pine or spruce boards and beams.
Look at the photo - at such a pergola for a summer cottage, built by your own hands, the support stands are installed on metal thrust bearings:
The latter can be fixed in a concrete floor or on a foundation block using dowels and wood grouse screws. If the terrace covering is made of wood, then the supports can be installed and fixed directly on the flooring, but in this case it should be done with the help of metal fasteners. Having fixed with temporary struts, the pillars are installed strictly vertically and fixed in the thrust bearings. After fastening, the position of the posts must be checked again and, if necessary, corrected.
Elements of the upper pergola trim are made of boards with a section of 50 x 150 mm. The upper ends of the racks are connected to the harness in a half-tree, that is, the butt end of the support is cut to half and a harness board is placed on the formed shoulder. Then the junction of the parts is fixed with clamps and fastened with self-tapping screws.
If the pergola has large linear dimensions, the boards will have to be spliced along the length. This can be done, for example, in a half-tree (overlap) or an oblique cut. The place where the two boards join together should be glued and fixed with screws. The boards to be joined should be cut so that a pillar is always located at the splice.
After the supports and the wall beam are connected with a continuous strapping, the rafters are laid and fixed on the latter. After attaching the first two rafter boards to the harness and supports, the pergola structure becomes stiffer. However, it is better not to remove temporary struts of the supports until the frame is fully assembled.
Having installed all the rafters, their ends must be cut so that they are on the same line. Then a wind board is nailed to the aligned ends.
As you can see in the photo, it is appropriate to supplement a beautiful pergola with a jardiniere (a box for flowers) and a decorative lattice as a support for climbing and climbing plants:
A flower box is hammered together from planed boards. When joining the parts of the box, internal support bars are used. The jardiniere is placed between four posts and fixed to them with screws, leveling it.
A decorative lattice for a beautiful pergola in the garden is assembled from slats in the form of a separate module. It is placed above the jardiniere and attached directly to the posts with screws.
Part of the pergola roof can be covered with a continuous transparent canopy. This will create a corner on the terrace, protected from precipitation, but at the same time accessible to sunlight. Cellular polycarbonate is best suited for these purposes, which is laid on four rafter legs, grouped on one side of the pergola.
For the installation of a transparent roof, special profiles should be used, by means of which polycarbonate sheets are attached and joined. Such profiles consist of two parts. On the upper edges of the rafters, base profiles are fastened with self-tapping screws.
It can be made in any design or purchased ready-made in the store. You can do without a lattice altogether, driving in carnations from the back of the posts and pulling several rows of wire or a nylon cord between them, along which the plants will curl.
Between them, cut sheets of polycarbonate are laid with the protective film removed from the bottom side and fixed with cover profiles. Before attaching the cover profile, lift the protective film along the edge of the panel in order to avoid it being pinched by the cover. The junction of the polycarbonate roof to the wall and roof of the house is covered with special profiles.
The next section of the article offers step-by-step instructions for building an openwork pergola with your own hands.
How to make an openwork pergola made of wood for a summer residence with your own hands (with photo)
In this design, the pergola, which protects the terrace or patio from direct sunlight, is combined with trellises for the weaving vines. Lattice inserts in the support frames are assembled with half-wood joints, the assembled frames with gratings are securely fastened to the base, and the structural elements are connected with metal plates. In warm weather, such an openwork corner of the garden can become the most pleasant vacation spot for the whole family.
The proposed do-it-yourself pergola design in the garden is very simple. It is easy to upgrade, so the exact dimensions are not given here.
Forget about the simple frame square and the carpentry bubble level. In this case, they will not save you.
Instead, to determine the location of the outer corners of the pergola, adopt the method of constructing a right-angled triangle with sides in a ratio of 3: 4: 5 using a measuring cord, and transfer the height using a water level.
Work should begin by transferring the project plan to the locality. It is necessary to think in advance how to make the pergola of the correct geometric shape and thereby ensure its attractiveness. To achieve this, given the large size of the structure, is more difficult than in the manufacture of a locker, table or house on the playground.
There are three basic building requirements, the accuracy of which determines the quality of any large structure on the site: strict verticality of the installation of the racks, observance of the rectangular base of the structure and the horizontalness of the ceiling or flat roof. Violation of any of the listed requirements immediately catches the eye, and you will be amazed and upset how even a small mistake can affect the result of the work.
Pay attention to the photo - this wooden one is made by hand from standard lumber:
The original construction is made of cedar, but this material is quite expensive, it can be easily replaced with any available wood.
The technology of making an openwork pergola from wood with your own hands is not complicated, however, it requires a lot of work. The whole structure is mainly assembled on half-wood joints, there are more than 600 of them in total! It is better to mechanize such a large-scale work: cut out the joints with a milling cutter or a pendulum saw with a disc for grooves.
The outer frames of the support legs are assembled by a simple groove-tenon connection. Making them is perhaps the most painstaking (but not the most ambitious) part of the work. It is necessary to cut out the racks and jumpers of the required length, select grooves 20 mm wide and 12 mm deep in them, and cut spikes at the ends of the frame jumpers.
The assembly of the frames must be done after the fabrication of the grating sections. You can choose your version of the pattern. But in any case, before you start making the roof support frames, first make a layout of the grille section. Since you will need a lot of lattices, put together a template and, laying the planks into it, you will immediately get a pattern pattern that exactly matches the frame opening.
As you can see in the photo, the pergola lattices for the summer cottage are made of bars with a section of 20 x 20 mm, connected in half a tree:
Connect the lattice strips with glue, and when it hardens, cut the ends of the parts along the opening (taking into account the depth of the grooves). Then you need to fit the grilles to the frames. First, assemble the bottom of the frame by gluing the uprights to the outermost lintel (which has a groove on one side only). Then insert the grilles from above along the grooves into the posts, alternating them with the jumpers. Reinstall the edge strip last and glue. If you are not sure about the reliability of the adhesive connection, strengthen it with a self-tapping screw, but in this case, the screw head will have to be slightly drowned and putty.
The grilles will give additional strength to the entire frame, despite the fact that they are inserted into the grooves of the frames without any fastening. If the pergola is located in an area where a strong wind often blows, you can glue them in or additionally fix them with screws.
Cut the ends of the supporting beams and roof battens with a jigsaw using cardboard templates.
For the assembly of the structure, it is better to use polyurethane glue, which is perfect for outdoor use. It is durable, waterproof and takes on stain color well. Until the glue hardens, it can be thinned with acetone. But this adhesive is difficult to remove from the skin, so always wear protective gloves when handling it, especially when gluing large parts.
The assembly begins with the corner frames that form the outer corners of the pergola. The frames are connected with metal corners at the top, bottom and in the middle.
The uprights must be firmly attached to the site. It is up to you to decide whether they will be attached to a columnar foundation, foundation blocks or terrace roof slabs. To withstand wind loads, the frames can be screwed onto the sturdy timber pads, which in turn are attached to the deck or foundation.
When making a pergola from wood, it is even easier to fix intermediate supports - here you just need to ensure their stability, but for uniformity and increase strength, it is better to install them in the same way.
Since the frames are initially fixed only from the bottom, each of them must be provided with temporary supports. After placing all the supports on the site, make sure that their top faces form a single plane. Most pergola, patio and verandah areas slope away from the house to allow rainwater drainage. This slope, as a rule, is insignificant, but it can still affect the geometry of the structure. Since the openwork frames are easier to make the same, so that they stand vertically on the floor with a slope, and their upper ends are at the same height horizontally, the slope of the site should be compensated. Depending on the overall design of the terrace, this can be done in two ways - to stuff spacers to the upper edges of the frames that are lower than others, or to increase the thickness of the lower lining at the base of the frame. In addition, it is not always possible to set the frames vertically only due to a slight skew when fastening in the bracket, and then you will have to make pads of variable height. In the case of a significant slope of the site, it is possible that the frames should be made of different heights. To do this, their racks are made of the appropriate size, and the openwork inserts are cut not according to the template, but in accordance with the resulting frame height.
These photos show how to make a pergola in the garden with your own hands:
After all the supporting frames of the wooden pergola for the summer cottage, made by hand, finally take their places, the location of the wall bar is marked on the wall and screwed to the wall. Place a few washers between the timber and the wall, which will provide a gap necessary for air circulation, which will allow the wood to dry quickly even after rain.
Now you can tackle the upper strapping of the structure. Connect the floor beams to the uprights with metal brackets.
Attach the ends of the roof beams directed towards the wall of the house to the longitudinal beam. It is best to make these connections also with metal brackets.
After the harness is fully assembled, the temporary supports at the racks can be removed and the roof lathing can be started. The lathing planks are simply inserted into the corresponding grooves of the beams and already installed planks. Again, depending on the strength of the wind in your area, they may need additional fastening.
Finishing any structure on the site is quite an important job. This structure is constantly under the influence of atmospheric phenomena, moreover, there are many hard-to-reach corners and slots in the gratings. If you cover the pergola with paint or an unstable varnish, the finish will sooner or later start to peel off, so there are two finishes to recommend. You can leave the wood uncoated to allow it to age naturally. This is an interesting option, especially if the entire structure is hidden by foliage. Another option is oil finish. This coverage can be renewed annually. It does not need to be cleaned off, as the oil does not form a surface film, and scratches, if any, can be easily repaired.
You can also use various finishing compounds - for example, a protective toning powder, which is dissolved in water and applied to the wood with a spray gun. After wetting the surface, the mixture creates a uniform gray color due to a chemical reaction.
Pay attention to the photo - with such a beautiful pergola for the garden, the wood becomes similar to the old, weathered, only a more noble shade:
This coating does not require periodic maintenance.
If all the work is done correctly, then, after completing the assembly of the pergola, you will not be disappointed, and when you plant flowers and climbing plants and after a while they grow, such a pergola will become a favorite resting place for you and your family.
The following describes how to make a metal pergola with your own hands.
How to build a metal pergola for a summer residence (with photo)
Traditional pergolas are most often made of wood, and to ensure their strength, parts of a sufficiently large section are used, which often spoils the appearance of the site, and increases wind loads.
The way out can be the manufacture of a structure from metal parts: The proposed pergola from metal is welded by hand from reinforcing rods and an iron strip. Structurally, the pergola consists of uprights, fixed with anchor bolts on concrete bases, and arc-shaped trusses. In this case, only one end of each truss rests on the rack, and the second is fixed with a flange on the brick wall of the house using dowels and wood grouse screws. The flange is a 4mm steel plate measuring 150x285mm with 10mm holes. The trusses are attached to the uprights with bent steel strip brackets and bolts and nuts.
To build a metal pergola with your own hands, you will need the following materials:
17 reinforcing bars 16 mm and 6 m long;
28 belts 120 x 120 mm from a strip 4 x 20 mm;
68 rings 0100 mm from a strip of 2 x 20 mm;
30mm staples from 3 x 30mm strip;
8 flanges 150 x 150 x 4 mm;
2 flanges 285 x 150 x 4 mm;
4 anchor bolts М16х200mm;
4 nuts М16 with washers;
M6 bolts with nuts;
wood grouse screws 10 x 100 mm.
Each post is welded from four 016 mm reinforcing bars with 120 x 120 mm belts welded from steel strip. The lower end of the post has a flange with a 16.5 mm center hole for anchoring to a concrete base. The upper ends of the struts are widened.
Conductors in the form of rectangular plates with 016.5 mm holes, into which the bars of the rack are threaded, will help to weld the pergola racks. The steel belt of the rack is fixed with clamps next to the conductor, and then welded to the reinforcing bars. After welding the next belt, the conductor is moved further to the place of the next joint. Conductors can be cut, for example, from flat slate. You should not use plywood conductors - they will catch fire very quickly.
The trusses also consist of four curved reinforcing bars welded together with rings and spacers. To facilitate bending of the reinforcing bar along its entire length, at the points of attachment of the rings, cuts are made 4 mm deep with a step of 300 mm. Bend the bar in a vice by hand, using a hammer if necessary. Rings 100 mm bent from steel strip 20 mm wide.
The side of the pergola farm is welded, focusing on a cardboard template drawn in a 1: 1 scale. The parts are fixed with heavy blanks and clamps, and gaskets made of non-combustible material are placed between the cardboard and the place to be welded. To weld other identical parts of the pergola, you can use the first welded part as a template.
Having welded two sidewalls of the truss with rings, they are connected with spacers made of pieces of reinforcement 200 mm long. After that, the farm will acquire the proper strength. In places where the truss is connected to the rack, vertical spacers are extended beyond the border of the truss by 40 mm to connect to the upper ends of the rack.
As shown in the photo, for a metal pergola, prepared structures are cleaned of rust, scale, primed, and then painted before installation:
To check the horizontal position of the trusses fixed on the pergola racks, a long even bar or metal profile will help, which is placed in the plane of the mounted structure, and a building level is placed on top.
The pergola posts with flanges welded to the base are fastened using concreted M16 anchor bolts and nuts. The trusses are fixed to the racks with steel brackets and M6 bolts with nuts. The truss is attached to the wall with a wall flange using dowels and wood grouse screws.
Watch the video "Do-it-yourself pergola" to better imagine how such a building is being erected:
Pergola is a trend of recent seasons in landscape design. It performs an aesthetic function: it is a highlight that attracts attention. At the same time, it is quite multifunctional: you can hide in it from the scorching summer sun and relax, and will also serve as support for climbing plants. It is not surprising that many owners of summer cottages and garden plots order such an unusual gazebo for themselves.
However, customizing and installing it costs a lot of money. Those who want to save money and get a real exclusive, not similar in design to the options from the workshops, can try to make it with their own hands - this is not only a unique author's art, but also the pride of the owner.
How to start making a pergola?
In order to master the construction of a pergola with your own hands, you first need to look at different design options:
it can be in the form of a canopy, attached to the house or as a separate structure (like a gazebo);
the roof can be made in the traditional style (square or rectangular), pointed, arched, sloped, or as a promenade structure;
the pergola itself can be built in the Japanese style or in the form of a rotunda, someone likes the corner options (some of the easiest to build with your own hands);
you can also choose different style solutions: country, hi-tech, modern, east, chalet, half-timbered, etc.
You also need to decide on the material. Everything will depend on your skills and finances. Stone and forged structures are among the most fashionable, sought-after and beautiful options. However, they are mostly made to order by professionals. If you are not a bricklayer or a blacksmith, it is better not to tackle such complex structures. The best option is a tree. It is easy to process, looks rich, allows you to add some of your own zest to the building. Metal is more difficult to work with.
Related article: Pergolas in landscape design
The next step is the selection of the scheme. Much depends on your skills and abilities. If you have worked with wood or metal before, if this is not your first experience in construction, it will not be difficult to assemble a pergola with your own hands. Someone doesn't even need step-by-step instructions. But beginners should still find a detailed algorithm of actions.
When you finally have what you want in your head, calculate how much material you need, what tools and fasteners you will need to use. Always take an order of magnitude more. As practice shows, let it be better to be superfluous than to go several times to look for something in the shops.
A general list of tools that can be useful for building a wooden pergola:
drill and drill for wood;
pencil / marker;
fine-grained sandpaper / sander;
hand saw for wood / jigsaw;
Tools for building a metal pergola:
pencil / marker;
Landscaping tips for placing a gazebo in the garden:
the pergola in the middle of the site does not look - it is better to choose a place on the edge;
an excellent option for a small garden would be an extension to the house in the form of a visor;
for those who want to build a full-fledged gazebo with a barbecue and a table with their own hands, you can choose a corner near the wall or fence, in the shade of large trees;
it can be an arch to form the transition from one zone of the site to another (along a path or alley);
if there are already climbing plants on the site that lack support, it will be logical to erect a supporting structure next to them;
you may need to create shading over a car park or playground - in this case, a pergola will also be an excellent solution to the problem.
Try to guess that the weather will be mostly sunny during the work. Always keep in mind the risk of rain in order to protect the material from it (store under a canopy or cover with a water-repellent film).
A simple solution
The simplest pergola for beginners is a roof in the form of crossbeams (along which ivy or liana will start up) supported by 4 beams.
Let's consider step by step how to build it yourself.
What is needed
For the construction of a pergola, pine is good, as the most inexpensive wood species. However, it must be well dried, otherwise the structure will then lead, and it is extremely difficult to level it. The table shows building materials, sizes and their quantity.
1. Cut the edges of the beams with a jigsaw (those that are indicated in the table in the amount of 9 pieces and with a section of 100x100x3000 mm).
2. On the remaining beam, which will go under the posts, make recesses for the longitudinal floor beams:
fold 4 beams together;
align in height;
fasten with clamps;
make markings: from the edge - 90 mm;
notch depth - 25 mm;
make multiple cuts with a hacksaw from the cutting line to the edge;
knock down partitions with a hammer;
process the grooves with a chisel.
Make notches on both sides of the beams.
Toner is a paint specially formulated for wooden buildings. It has many advantages:
tints (you can choose any shade);
preserves the natural texture of wood;
does not require the application of a fixing layer of varnish;
gives the material such practical properties as hydrophobicity, UV resistance;
protects from external negative influences.
Therefore, instead of ordinary paint, purchase a toner and treat the prepared timber with it in 2 layers - this will be enough for a reliable, durable coating. Algorithm of actions:
Grind the details.
Protonate them in one layer.
Wait until it is completely dry.
Protonate a second time.
Wait until it is completely dry a second time.
Another indisputable advantage of the toner is that after 2-3 years, when the need for re-painting arises, you will not need to peel off the exfoliated pieces. All that needs to be done is to go through the grinder and protonate again (only once).
Marking on the ground
1.Use pegs and a rope to mark on the site the place where the pergola will stand. Dimensions - 2.6 x 3 m.
2. Make holes for the supports (with a shovel or a drill). Depth - 1 m.
3. Place the beams in the holes so that the cuts run along the long sides of the markings. Make sure they are at the same height.
4. Fill the pits with cement mortar. Let it freeze.
1. Longitudinal beams (those that are 4 m long) should be mounted on the recesses. Leave the edges to protrude 40 cm beyond the racks.
2. Drill through holes with an electric drill (they are needed for the bolts holding the beams and the rack together).
3. Fasten the construction parts with bolts and nuts.
4. Evenly spread the crossbeams along the top of the longitudinal beams, fixing with clamps and securing with self-tapping screws.
Inside you can put a table with chairs, flower pots. Place climbing plants on the ceiling and uprights - girlish grapes, garden ivy, gold hops or tropical dicentra. This design option can be draped with airy translucent fabrics.
Advanced version of the wooden pergola
Those who know a lot about carpentry are able to make a more complex structure with their own hands. For example, with a pitched roof. Moreover, you can not completely cover it with material, but leave it for ivy and vines. If you want a more reliable shelter from the same rain, then you should make a full-fledged cover.
A drawing is already required here, since you will build a more complex structure than was described above. The problem is that it is difficult to find a ready-made scheme for your garden and adjust the dimensions of the same building materials to it. The figure may indicate one area, and you have a completely different one. What are the options for action in such cases:
using mathematical calculations, change the dimensions indicated on the ready-made scheme, taking into account the area of your site and the initial parameters of your building material (this can be done either yourself or ordered by the designer);
draw up a drawing yourself, using an approximate version only as a sample;
do not look for any other sketches, drawings and diagrams - initially draw up your own, reflecting in it your vision of the pergola;
use very convenient computer 3D programs specially created for the independent preparation of such drawings: you drive in the required dimensions, and it gives out a ready-made result, which can be adjusted at each stage of construction.
The last option is the most accurate and convenient, although often such programs can be downloaded only for a fee and you need to understand at least a little bit of computer graphics.
Here is one of the blueprints for a wooden pergola that you can use for DIY construction:
The following materials are used for the roof of the pergola:
decorative types of tiles;
polymer building materials;
When buying wood for construction, be sure to keep in mind that it must be:
all - from one batch, otherwise different quality will affect the decorative properties of the structure;
without damage, deformation, chips, cracks and fungal infections;
The quality of the building materials will determine the functionality and decorative appearance of the pergola. After purchasing them, the wood must be treated with special solutions if you want the structure to stand as long as possible. Fire retardant and antifungal impregnations:
protect against aggressive weather conditions (rain, frost, heat);
prevent corrosion of wood by moisture, fungus, pests;
retain their decorative appearance;
reduce the risk of fire.
Such compositions are applied to the wood in 2-3 layers, but each time you need to wait for complete absorption and drying. The final stage will be processing with wood stain or special varnish, which will give the material a beautiful shade and preserve its natural structure.
Step by step algorithm
Depending on the size of the building, choose which foundation you will build for it. If the construction involves massive building material, it is better to spend time on tape. With a low weight, block is enough. If these are just planks, metal screw piles will do.
Algorithm of actions:
Level the site.
Remove the sod.
Dig a hole of the required size depending on the type of foundation chosen.
Frame and straps:
Lay the grillage over the foundation to evenly distribute the weight of the structure on the base. Here you will need logs (minimum diameter 22 cm) or large section beams (20x20).
Place the bottom crown on the grillage.
Lay a waterproofing layer between it and the base (roofing material can be an alternative).
Install pillars (bars) on the constructed lower harness.
Fasten the supports with pins (as an option - corners, screw fasteners).
Connect the pillars with crossbars from above and below (if necessary).
Next, walls or side beams are erected, if the drawing suggests them. According to the scheme that was proposed above, an open pergola will be built, without them.
Lay a roughing board over the grillage (minimum thickness 20 mm).
Secure with screws or nails.
Cover it with wood (thickness - at least 10 mm), which must be pre-treated with special solutions (for example, yacht varnish). The type of installation is better to use a thorn-groove.
Helpful advice. This completes the flooring. No need to lay out on top (supposedly for beauty) plywood, tiles or linoleum. Yes, they will give the pergola home coziness, decorativeness and facilitate cleaning inside it. However, in street buildings, they become traumatic - especially during rains and in autumn, when there is high humidity.
Mount the rafter system (the thickness of the boards directly depends on the mass of the entire roof) on the upper strapping.
Lay the crate.
Secure the details.
If the roof is of a closed type, lay the selected material on the rafters (tiles, ondulin, etc.).
One of the best design options is a thermowood pergola. This material has recently gained wide popularity, as it is distinguished by its 100% naturalness and safety for human health. This is a modified wood that has been heat treated with hot steam. No chemicals are used in its production. Its advantages:
resistance to mechanical damage;
no deformation during operation (the structure will last a very long time);
high resistance to biological effects: fungus, mold, pests, decay;
excellent decorative properties;
If you spent money on a thermal tree, it makes sense to make the pergola more durable. Therefore, we bring to your attention a diagram of a simple design (as at the very beginning), but already put on the foundation.
mark the terrain;
dig holes in the corners (diameter - 40 cm, depth - 15 cm below the level of soil freezing);
cover with gravel (thickness - at least 10 cm), tamp thoroughly;
insert the formwork;
fill the molds with concrete, install adjustable anchors in it, leave for 48 hours.
2. Aligning the supports:
install wooden racks in a perfectly vertical state;
fix in two directions;
fix in anchors with wood grouses.
3. Fix the uprights with metal anchors:
4. Use one of the rack mounting options:
5. Install the support beams:
fix with clamps;
drill through holes through the beams and the rack;
insert the bolts, tighten the nuts;
the beams should protrude slightly beyond the perimeter of the building;
to improve the decorative properties with a jigsaw, give the ends of the beams a rounded shape.
6. Fasten the beams and install the crossbars:
align the beams so that the structure looks smooth and neat;
make 2 cutouts at the ends of each crossbeam;
drill pilot holes;
fix the beams with self-tapping screws.
7. Make sure the beams are level:
8. Fasten the crossbeams:
make cuts in the board;
remove wood between the cuts with a chisel.
9. Install perpendicular (fixing) rungs every 60 cm:
drill pilot holes;
fix the crossbars with self-tapping screws.
10. Completion of work:
fill holes and cracks with wood putty;
sand the surfaces with medium-grain sandpaper;
apply 2 coats of varnish.
To make a crate pergola with your own hands, you can use any of the above instructions. But before completing the work, install a lattice structure instead of walls. There are a lot of variations on how to do this. First, it can completely replace walls. Secondly, only reach the middle of the structure, and the upper part will remain open. Thirdly, the lathing can even be put on the roof instead of the usual cross beams, which were indicated in the above diagrams. All this will not be difficult even for a beginner. It will be much more difficult to make this element itself.
For the manufacture of the lathing, hardwoods are taken: oak, ash, larch, pine. Structurally, it consists of 2 parts:
frame - a wooden structure of a rectangular or square shape as a rigid frame for slats;
slats - wooden beams that are attached to the frame overlapping each other.
Make measurements of the pergola in order to select 4 bars for the frame so that then the finished crate can freely enter the desired opening, which it will decorate.
Treat them with an antiseptic solution.
Wait until it dries completely.
Connect the ends of the bars.
Fasten the seam strips.
There are several ways to connect the ends of the battens in the crate:
beginners can do this using the "comb" method (it is the simplest);
masters can be advised "dovetail";
you can saw down the ends and connect the ends with glue, self-tapping screws, nails.
The finished frame, while it is without the main element (slats), you need to try to insert into the opening of the pergola under construction to make sure that all measurements are made correctly.
Thin slats are required to fill the frame. They are attached diagonally at regular intervals. The step size can be different: some people like a fine-mesh crate, which will almost completely hide those who are in the pergola. Others prefer a wide mesh for more fresh air and light inside. It may also depend on what plants will subsequently be launched on this wall.
The main thing is that the interval should be the same everywhere. This is what creates the correct geometric pattern and makes the lathing so decorative. If there is no hope for your own eyes, you can use a special wooden grid template, which will not allow you to make mistakes and will allow you to do everything as clearly as possible.
The easiest way to attach the slats is to nail them. Carpentry craftsmen can use notch grooves.
If you make one crate frame with your own hands, which, for example, will go for the rear wall of the pergola, after attaching the rails, it is immediately installed on the self-tapping screws to the support beams. If there are several nets, first they should be fastened together (with glue or fasteners), and then they should be put into the overall structure.
Pergola-lathing has excellent decorative properties. In addition, it will serve as a support function for climbing plants in the garden. This is one of the best options for beautifully decorating some varieties of roses (excelsa, amestyst, flamingo, santana).
With a bench
An excellent option for a summer residence is a miniature pergola-gazebo with a bench for those who do not like noisy companies. It is ideal both for supporting climbing plants and for comfortable rest. The arched design allows for a dense ivy curtain to be placed on top. And bushes of roses or clematis launched along the crate on the side will make the building romantic and attractive.
Note: * - with an allowance.
Plus to those listed in the table:
brass nails for frames (16 and 20 mm);
transparent varnish for external treatment.
The recommended material is cedar.
Cut out blanks A and B (arch and rack).
Saw off the ends at A.
Mill grooves along the upper ends B and sawn arches.
On a workbench, pull the upper sections together.
Glue them together.
Make allowances, cut out the upper parts, clean to the desired contours.
Glue the racks and arches.
Clean the arches, tighten with clamps.
Drill holes (4 mm) at the top.
Cut out spacers C, D and E.
Glue E to D.
Drill holes at the ends D (2.4 mm).
Fix the spacers C and D between A and B. with the screws.
Cut out element G for the backrest.
Saw backs and supports.
Connect the three supports F and G with glue. Tighten with clamps.
Saw out I and H. Chamfer edge I.
Attach the lintels to the supports with screws.
Cut the slats for J.
Round off the leading edge.
Attach the slats to the seat (6 mm apart).
Fasten the seat between the arches with screws.
Craft elements K and L.
Fasten between the uprights.
Sand all external elements.
Cover with varnish.
A mini-pergola with a bench only at first glance seems to be a simple structure, but in fact only an experienced carpenter can make it.
Extension to the house
A convenient extension of the pergola to the house will allow you to spend time with guests in it without leaving the site. One step - and you can already have tea at a cozy table or barbecue. It is also quite possible to do it yourself.
To install a vertical bar, it is recommended to use metal "sleeves" from a professional pipe. Small holes are dug under it and filled with concrete.
The height of the posts depends on the size of the house. Usually they are put in 4 pieces, but if the pergola is stretched out, for strength it is better to put the fifth. It is recommended to install the rafters on the side rafters for reliability, so you need to make recesses in them in advance.
The upper Mauerlat is anchored to the wall of the house. The lower one lies on the pillars. Rafters are attached to them with the help of corners. The crate is laid on them. Next, the corrugated board is attached with classic self-tapping screws with a washer.
If you are making an extension of a pergola to a house with your own hands, take on board different design options. It can be open or closed, with a roofing roof or lathing instead, made of wood or polycarbonate.
Photos of pergolas attached to the house:
If you want to install a metal pergola, it is better to make it from profiled pipes with a rectangular section or reinforcement.
Metal pergolas are quite diverse in their design. So it's worth starting with a choice:
hinged, arched, semi-arched, gallery;
dynamic and static;
single-row and multi-row;
decorated with forged elements and as simple as possible in decoration.
You should choose a model not only taking into account its beauty and functionality, but also from the point of view of its ease of installation, because you will have to do everything yourself.
The construction of a metal pergola begins with a sketch. It requires much more precision than wooden construction. It is easy to saw wood, remove excess, make another notch or fill in unnecessary. All this is difficult to do with metal.
They start with making the frame. It is important here that the profiles and steel arches lay on top of the arch evenly. Firstly, the appearance of the structure depends on it. Secondly, the plants will then grow along it, too, in the same way. If you are new to metalworking, it is easier to choose a square roof mounted pergola first. All structural elements are cut with a grinder in exact accordance with the sketch. Then they are connected with a welding machine.
Attention! Working with the welding machine requires utmost care! It is necessary to observe safety rules and work exclusively in a protective mask.
After that, you can proceed to the foundation:
At the points of support, dig holes 80 cm deep.
Cover them with sand by 20 cm and tamp them.
Clean the support posts from rust, treat with an anti-corrosion compound.
Weld corners to them from above and below, so that later it will facilitate the installation of the arch.
Insert the supports into the holes, align, secure with retaining boards.
Pour with a mixture of concrete and gravel.
If you intend to rest under a metal arched pergola, you can fill the entire foundation with concrete, and make a wooden flooring on top. This will allow you to put country furniture there.
48 hours after pouring the foundation and supporting pillars, you can attach the frame to them, which was made according to the sketch at the very beginning. For strength, corner lintels are used.
Helpful advice. Installing a metal frame is difficult enough. Therefore, it is better to do the installation with an assistant or use wooden scaffolding.
After the arched frame is installed, all structural elements are primed and covered with protective and decorative paint. It remains only to plant climbing plants along the supports, decorate the pergola with hanging flower pots.
Our article will help you choose plants for a pergola: Perennial flowers for the garden.
Under the strange for our ear the word "pergola" hides a variety of arches for a variety of climbing plants. They were originally built in southern countries as a support for grapes. And the word itself has Italian roots ( pergola - canopy, annex), where the vines supported the hammered bars. The simplicity of the design contributes to their independent manufacture, and in this article we will talk about what it is and how a self-made pergola will decorate your yard, cottage or garden.
In ancient times, pergolas were not only in the vineyards. Similar structures, only on a large scale, were made in courtyards to protect them from the scorching sun. The hottest midday hours were spent under them. These were rather awnings, one part of which rested on the wall. Their design has remained the same, the materials have changed: now the pergola can be not only wooden, but also metal, concrete and even plastic.
Pergola canopy near the vine house - dense shade even at noon
Aside from being a useful structure - supporting vines and shading - it's beautiful too. This was appreciated by the architects. Gradually, pergolas migrated to the gardens of the nobility. Only there they had a more refined shape, expensive materials were used up to marble columns, beams were made of pretentious shapes. It twisted along them not only and not so much grapes as ornamental plants, roses, bindweed and lianas.
This is also a pergola, but the look and design is completely different, although the construction principle is the same
They also make it in the form of a gallery, covering from the sun all the way from one building to another. These arcades serve as a support for perennial vines, climbing species of roses. Where they do not survive due to the harsh climate, you can use annual bindweed, they are no less decorative, the flowering period can be chosen so that the flowering continues throughout the warm season.
A whole gallery of arches can close the path from one building to another or to a resting place
In the modern sense, it is rather a canopy or an open summer gazebo, which instead of a roof has a network of beams along which plants climb.
Concrete pergolas require careful design
And this too. This is more like a summer gazebo for a pleasant pastime
Custom design. However, this is also a kind of pergola.
So, with the help of a pergola, you can arrange the entrance to the house - this is a canopy that looks good even without plants, and when they grow it will be even more comfortable
The altered pergola is the arch on which the flowers or grapes rest. If we say "arch", then most often we mean a metal product with a rounded top.
The arch for grapes is also a pergola, only with a modified shape of the upper part
The arch under the climbing rose is the same pergola. But the mass of a rose is less than that of a vine, and wooden structures are still made for it.
Hang flowerpots with ampelous plants on top - and the arch becomes even more elegant
Powerful columns wrapped around lianas - protected garden
Blooming honeysuckle on a pergola arch
Read about the basics and rules of landscape design here.
Despite the fact that the design is simple, it is necessary to correctly assess the load that plants can create. For our country it is not worth dumping the scales and snow pressure. Especially after the plants have braided the structure. Therefore, all connections, fastenings are made reliable, it is better to play it safe and put corners than to disassemble a blockage of plants and a collapsed arch. In this regard, the supporting columns and beams of the arch must be strong and reliable.
If you plan to build from wood, support posts for a medium-sized pergola are used at least 200 * 200 mm. Beams - from a board of at least 40 mm thickness. Be sure to make stops and jibs: they will add rigidity. If the support pillars will be built of brick or stone, they are placed around a pipe - round or square - your choice, but it should be.
A little about the size of the pergolas. They should be in proportion to the area. If it is small, then the distance between the posts can be one and a half meters. You should not do less: taking into account the foliage, only one person will pass through such a passage. For larger areas, a wider width is required - too narrow will seem scanty.
The standard height of a garden pergola is 2.2-2.4 meters. Then the whole structure is harmonious, and foliage and flowers will not crush.
How to connect parts at the top
When building an arch, special attention should be paid to the joints. How to make them look at the photo.
The easy way to connect the uprights to the main beams
For those who are not very good at carpentry, it can be difficult to cut the recesses for the installation of beams. There is a simple and reliable way to do without this work: connect the uprights and main beams with a decorative buttress. This is not only decoration, but also a way to make the connection more reliable.
A beam is laid on top of the support post (rack) and nailed through with nails or long self-tapping screws. However, with lateral forces, they can turn out. To eliminate this, after the auxiliary beams are laid and fixed, a decorative buttress is nailed. It holds the three elements together into a single whole. Even greater rigidity of the structure is given by a spacer set obliquely, which is often called a jib.
In the simplest case, the pergola consists of four posts connected by main and auxiliary beams.
The simplest pergola design
Beam edge decoration
You can slightly diversify the appearance due to the different design of the ends of the auxiliary and main beams. Several ways to wash down are shown in the photo below. To make them all the same, make a template from a small piece. Then you apply it to the workpiece, trace with a finely honed pencil as close to the template as possible. Cut along this contour.
How can the edges of the beams be made
Reducing the cost of construction
The beam for the columns must be of a large section, and this is not cheap. The main beams should also be of the same size, which further increases the cost of the structure. But you can save money if you nail two thick boards from both sides to the racks at the top. How it looks from above, see the following figure.
To reduce the cost of the quality of the main beams, you can use two boards
You can connect them with nails-screws, or you can use bolts. This is even safer: the bolted connections can be tightened if necessary. Look at the photo to see how such a structure looks "live".
Pergola with double planks instead of main beams
Read how to build a wooden gazebo here.
Step-by-step assembly instructions
First of all, you need to decide how you will fix the support posts. If your pillars are made of larch, there are no questions, you can just bury them in the ground. With other wood, everything is more complicated: direct contact with the ground is extremely undesirable. You can, of course, treat the ends of the pillars buried in the ground with antibacterial impregnation, such as SENEZH or Senezh Ultra, and put them into working off for a couple of hours.
The second option is to make a concrete pile with an embedded stud (or several studs, depending on the size and weight of the structure). Attach the rack to the stud with a gap of 5-8 mm.
Another way is if the site is concreted or covered with a covering. Then they take metal thrust bearings. Most often they are in the form of an inverted letter "P", fasten it to the surface of the site. Bolt the pillar through these plates. This type of fastener is suitable for a garden, where the error will be covered by plants. If construction takes place on an open site, other thrust bearings are used.
Ways of fastening poles (racks)
After the method of installing the pillars has been chosen, all the wood that will be used in construction is covered with a protective compound - antibacterial and against insects. The formulations must be intended for outdoor use (not for indoor use, but only for outdoor use). After processing, you can start building:
Site marking. With the help of pegs, laces, a tape measure and a building level, a site of the required size is marked. In its corners, a place for the pillars is marked, they are installed in the chosen way.
Layout of the site and installation of pillars
Two main beams are nailed to the exactly exposed posts. To reduce the cost of construction, we use two boards instead, which are attached just below the top - 5-6 cm below. The beams must be fixed strictly horizontally. As already mentioned, you can use nails, screws or bolts. If you connect with self-tapping screws, take white, not black: they are much stronger and can withstand heavy loads.
We fix the main beams. We make them composite - from two boards 50 mm thick
The auxiliary beams are now mounted. If possible, make cuts for the main ones: this will make them easier to fasten. Otherwise, you will have to use corners, which in one part will be attached to the lower beam, and the second will hold the transverse one.
Installation of auxiliary beams
Actually, the installation of jibs remained. They will give the structure more stability.
To make the shadow thicker at first, even thinner strips can be stuffed on top - 5-7 cm thick.To keep them well, cuts are made 2-3 cm deep under each auxiliary beam.
Installation of crossbars
Everything, the wooden pergola is assembled by hand. You can watch the assembly sequence in the next video.
Features of the pergolas attached to the house
The pergolas adjacent to the house are open summer terraces. One part of the beams rests on holders mounted on the wall of the house, the other on beams lying on the supporting pillars. There are several ways to attach them to the wall. You see the first one in the photo below: a support bar is nailed to the wall, the landing nests are cut out in nm. Additionally, the strength of the connection is provided by corners, which are fixed on both sides.
Beams with one side rest on the pillars, the other on the wall of the building
The second way - special stops are mounted on the wall: steel plates of the corresponding shape.
Fastening beams to the wall
The main construction steps are similar, but have some nuances:
Mark the locations of the posts and install them. The pillars are installed at a certain distance from the house, equal to the width (depth) of the terrace-pergola. The second part of the marking is made on the wall of the house - the second ends of the auxiliary beams are installed there. Either a support bar or plates are fixed there.
Attach two boards or a support bar from above to the exposed posts.
Lay auxiliary beams on them, which are attached to the support on the wall with one side.
All. What you should get as a result is shown in the picture below.
Schematic representation of an attached pergola from above
You can watch the sequence of actions during the construction of a pergola adjacent to the wall in the following video
On the same type, but with a roof they build verandas. How - read here.
Building a metal pergola
The peculiarity of using metal as a building material is that it is more reliable and requires less maintenance. The metal is immediately primed, then painted. With a high-quality coating with good paint, this will last for several years.
With a tree more hassle. In our climate, we have to renew our coverage every year. Therefore, it is better not to use varnishes: they crack, turn white, come off in parts. To renew the coating, you need to clean everything, then re-cover. Therefore, it is better not to use even the best varnishes for open garden or outbuildings. For processing wood that is outside all year round, there are oils to which color is added. They do not give shine, but they perfectly protect the surface from climatic influences. The worst thing that can happen is a little fading. For re-treatment, the surface must be cleaned of dirt and dried. You can paint. Drying "to touch" is usually a couple of hours. Convenient, beautiful, reliable.
The difference between the metal is also in the assembly method. This is either welding or bolting. Everyone chooses the method himself. Due to the fact that the corrosion resistance of the painted metal is quite high, it can be simply concreted. Therefore, there are fewer difficulties with installing pillars. It's only more difficult to work with him because of the mass. But there are drawbacks everywhere.
And the variety of metal pergolas is, perhaps, even more than wooden: you can forge it, make bent forms. Metal is combined with stone, brick, wood. An awning is pulled over a metal frame, wicker mats are laid, roller blinds are fixed. See examples in the photo gallery (it expands to full \ tap, if you need it).
The pergola itself is not visible under this carpet. It is built like a gazebo: a frame made of pipes is welded, everything else is plants. By the same principle, you can make a gazebo for grapes.
How to connect metal and wood
Rolls of mats were fixed on a metal pergola. Adjust the degree of openness at your discretion
Another rose arch is the garden pergola that we see most often.
This is the pergola, which we call the "arch for flowers or grapes
Another example of using an awning. The main highlight is in contrast
Another combination of wood and metal, but the design is different, a different feeling. Such a pergola can be arranged on an open balcony.
Forging elements are always relevant. Plants overgrown over time will turn this pergola into the most comfortable place.
Combination of metal and polycarbonate. Both materials allow for curved shapes. Even a slight nonlinearity turns a banal canopy into an interesting addition.
Light pergola above the entrance - an awning is stretched over a metal frame
Clear geometric lines, powerful columns, simple and stylish
Posts and main beams made of metal, auxiliary beams made of wood
Read how to make a metal gazebo here.
It is worth noting that all of the options presented can be made of wood or metal, or columns can be made of stone, concrete or marble. The idea is important, and the embodiment can be different.
Simple rectangular with strong beams
Pergola drawing with dimensions
Columns are interestingly decorated - a great option for installation near the house
You can make an entrance to the garden or rose garden
Instead of wooden columns, steel pillars are used, sheathed with wood
The pergola is one of the most wonderful small architectural forms that you can make in your garden with your own hands. It will create coziness and beauty in the personal plot, will be a source of shade and will serve as an ideal support for climbing plants.
Here is a detailed drawing and a plan for creating a pergola.
General list of required beams and boards:
- timber 10x10 cm (4 pcs.), overhead boards on a timber 5x15 cm (8 pcs.) - load-bearing beams 10x15 cm (2 pcs.), with 45-degree decorative cuts at the ends - side jumpers 5x10 cm, see step 4 - runners 5x10 cm (11 pcs.), with 45-degree decorative cuts at the ends
📍 Step 0. Construction of the pergola begins with the foundation
This initial phase is very important. The overall stability of the pergola will depend on the strength of the base.
Experienced summer residents probably have their own ways of creating foundations for various structures. We will not dwell on this in detail. We only note that before starting work, you need to make sure that there are no communications at the installation site. And one more tip: the depth of the base should be about 1/4 of the height of the pergola.
To fasten the pillars to the foundation, you can use such a support base. Or other similar supports.
📍 Step 1. Installation of support pillars
The drawing shows the distance between the axes of the supports. Before fixing the pillars, fix them with 5x10 cm boards. Using a level, make sure that the pillars are upright and the top of all supports are at the same height. Trim the posts if necessary.
After aligning the posts, attach them to the base using wood grouses or self-tapping screws.
📍 Step 2. Installation of load-bearing beams
Place beams 10x15 cm on top of the posts. The overhangs must be the same length. Attach the beams to the posts using metal plates and self-tapping screws. These places will then be hidden by overlays (shown in the next step).
📍 Step 3. Installing overhead boards on the posts
These 5x15cm overhead planks serve two purposes: they add more detail and variety to the pergola design, and they also strengthen the joist-to-post connection.
Each board is attached to the beam with 4 self-tapping screws, and to the rack with 8 self-tapping screws, located at equal distances from each other and in the center of the post.
📍 Step 4. Installation of side jumpers
These side lintels also add beauty and strength to the pergola. They can be attached to the posts using self-tapping screws and countersunk holes.
First, install horizontal lintels 5x10 cm on each side. Diamond-shaped oblique elements can be cut using a cardboard template. Feel free to improvise with your pergola design.
📍 Step 5. Installation of runners
Place 11 runners at equal intervals along the length of the beams. Take the time to align the runner spacings and overhangs. Everything should be beautiful! Use U-shaped fasteners to connect runners and beams. Attach each attachment to the beam first, then insert the runners into them.
This vine, which wraps around a hand-made pergola, will soon yield a few bunches of delicious grapes. A simple pergola like this makes a great entrance to your beautiful garden!
Translation and adaptation of articles from the site https://apieceofrainbow.com
Read also interesting articles:
💠 Wooden windows: are they relevant today? 🌾 A few tips for arranging a rock garden ☂ Soft roof or metal roofing? Which material should you choose? 👐 DIY concrete. Is it possible? ⛩ Gazebo on the site. Do you need it or not?
If you liked this article, then you can safely like and share the article with your friends! This will help us find out what topics you are interested in, and what it is better for us to write about in the future. Ask your questions in the comments and share your impressions. Your response is very important to us! Subscribe to our channel WE PLANT AND BUILD on Yandex Zen, so as not to miss new publications. Subscribe to us on social networks: Telegram Classmates In contact with Facebook Youtube
pergola made of wood with your own hands
A practical person living in the middle lane, perhaps, may ask, why do we need a gazebo without a roof? What can I say, probably then, why do we need front gardens, alpine slides or flower beds - for beauty. Yes, perhaps to someone the pergola will seem like an unfinished structure, but this is all the charm, besides, this building is not devoid of functionality, and most importantly, the light and delicate design does not create an oppressive impression and can become the highlight of your garden or summer cottage.
Be that as it may, but the interest in this type of garden building is very high today. Therefore, in this article, you can find out how to make a pergola with your own hands , get acquainted with various options, use step-by-step photos, drawings, diagrams and links to sites with detailed instructions. I would also like to say that in addition to external attractiveness, it is quite easy to make a pergola with your own hands, even for a person without experience. Maybe not everyone decides to build a gazebo, but there shouldn't be any special difficulties with a pergola. You will be convinced of this when you consider the examples of designs proposed in the article.
How to make a pergola with your own hands
A standard rectangular pergola is traditionally installed on pillars or columns. It is perfect for climbing plants, therefore, trellis are stuffed between the posts especially for these purposes. Pergolas are often placed at the entrance to a garden, against the wall of a house, or as a stand-alone structure. You can buy a prefab kit, but a pergola is fairly easy to build from scratch using inexpensive processed softwood. This step-by-step photo of the instruction clearly shows one of the options building a classic pergola with your own hands , in this case, as a separate gazebo. By the way, the first photo shows a metal thrust bearing for the supports.
Wooden pergola can be a great addition to any summer cottage as it creates a large shady area perfect for dining outdoors or reading a good book. Before starting construction, you need to think carefully about the size and design of the structure, because if you are going to build a pergola with your own hands drawings you will definitely need it. Several types of projects with drawings and dimensions are presented in this article, choose the one that best suits your site. Make a pergola with your own hands easier than, say, a gazebo, but in order for the design to be beautiful, it is necessary to maintain certain proportions. For example, if the distance between the posts is much greater than their height, the view of the pergola will not be very harmonious. therefore usually the distance between supports does not exceed three meters ... Here, the diagrams show the construction of a pergola with your own hands step by step, only the dimensions are indicated in inches (1 inch - 2.54 cm) . A few tips before starting construction :
to save time, collect all the tools at the construction site before starting the final assembly;
when choosing components, make sure they are perfectly straight and in good visual condition;
apply several coats of wood stain to the wood.
The first step is to mark and install support pillars. When concreting the pillars, it is recommended to use temporary supports so that at the final stage, when the concrete dries, you can adjust them vertically using a level.
The next step is to install the grating on the sides of the pergola, between the wooden posts. As you can see in the picture, you need to use wooden slats and galvanized screws. Drill the pilot holes at both ends of the components before attaching them to the uprights with screws. Once again, accurately measure the clearances between the parts.
The third step is the installation of the support beams. Trim the ends of the bars in a decorative manner if you want to enhance the appearance of the pergola. To attach the beams to the posts, drill through holes through the beam and supports, then bolt. Ask someone, preferably experienced, to help you fasten the beams to the uprights.
If you live in an area with strong winds, or just want to spice up the design a little, you can reinforce the frame with brackets. Cut both ends of the brackets at a 45 degree angle and secure them with galvanized screws to the support beams.
And finally, the installation of the cross beams is underway. You should take care to make the shadow elements as shown in the plans. It is very important to maintain the same distance between the rafters, so do not be too lazy to thoroughly take accurate measurements. Drill holes through the rafters and fix them to the support beams with galvanized screws.
Making shade crossbars is not a difficult job if you use the right plans and techniques. As you can see in the image, you need to make some cuts in the beams to properly fit the supports. Make deep cuts with a circular saw and clean out the notch with a chisel and sandpaper.
Lastly, take care of the finishing touches. Fill the holes wood filler and let dry for several hours. Then sand the wood surface with fine sandpaper. If you want to protect the structure from moisture and improve the appearance of the pergola, apply several coats of paint to the wooden parts.
Often the pergola acts as an ordinary canopy to create shade. We install them in front of the entrance to the garden or plot, on the porch or as an extension to the house. The gazebo pergola differs from the pavilion pergola only in that they are usually placed separately and equipped with railings, like ordinary gazebos. There are three options here, how to make a pergola gazebo with your own hands with drawings and dimensions .
Here's the first option.
The initial stage of construction is to create a floor frame. As you can see in the diagram, you need to cut both ends of the rails at a 45 ° angle. Align edges carefully, drill pilot holes and insert screws to create stiff seams. Make sure all corners are square before tightening the screws.
The next stage of the assembly is the installation of intermediate beams in the floor frame. Place the logs at the same distance and check the corners with a square.
Installation of vertical beams. This must be done very carefully, use a plumb line and a level, then drill holes in the beams and fix with screws. Alternatively, you can use screws and then install the decking on the pergola floor. As shown in the diagram, it is recommended to leave a small gap between the floorboards. Fix the ends of the boards to the beams with galvanized screws. Make sure the screw heads are flush with the board surface. If you want to increase the strength of the floor, install the spikes to the uprights under the shields.
Then you need to install the support beams. To make it look beautiful, you can work a little with a jigsaw, figuratively cutting off the ends of the beam
Then attach the support beams to the top of the wooden posts. Fix everything tightly, leaving no gaps.
The next step is to install the roof battens. This can be done in different ways, for example, simply lay the bars on the supporting beam and fasten them obliquely with long screws. And you can do, as in this case, cut a groove from each end of the timber and simply insert it, as shown in the picture.
Next, we install the railing, there are also different ways here, but it's not difficult. You can use the option shown in the step by step photos.
Finally, install additional top slats, but this is optional if you want the roof to be more solid. To do this, you just need to fill additional strips perpendicular to the cross beams.
Third option , gazebo pergola with railings and stone floor ... Of course, this is a more expensive structure and also time consuming. But if your house is made in this style, then such a pergola will look quite impressive and stylish.
Pergola made of wood for a summer residence with your own hands
A design that won't provide shelter from wind and rain, but keep you cool when it comes to the midday heat. In general, the thing is not very practical, then why are pergolas so popular? It is a unique architectural blend that represents the common features of Italian Renaissance gardens, often serving as canopies for walkways or as vine pavilions. Today, this Mediterranean design has become fashionable all over the world, even in areas seemingly unsuitable for such designs.
In addition, a big plus is that pergola made of wood for giving with your own hands it is not at all difficult to build, even easier than an ordinary gazebo. The version presented here has a height of 2.5 meters, you can see all the dimensions of the parts on presented drawing but you can easily change it according to your requests. Below, step-by-step photos show how to make a pergola out of wood with your own hands, and if something is not clear, you can read detailed instructions on the website, the link to which is under the gallery.
The pergola presented here is quite large, supported by 8 pillars. True, this example shows construction pergolas for giving with your own hands based on the old gazebo, so the process of installing the poles is not shown. The author was fortunate that all the supports were in good condition and could be reused. That is, it was necessary to make a roof for the pergola with your own hands.
In this case, the horizontal load-bearing beams installed in grooves , in principle, this is the most reliable way, so you can fix it even without nails, but to make it stronger, it is still recommended to nail or screw it on. The gallery presents 48 step-by-step photos of the assembly process , so everything should be clear, if you have any questions, link to the source site under the photos.
The author of this photo shares his experience, how to make a simple pergola with your own hands in two days with minimal costs ... Why is it so fast and cheap? At first , this is the simplest design, Secondly , the pergola was installed on a ready-made concrete platform. As a rule, a free-standing pergola is built on concrete supports deepened below the freezing line. Since the author's patio was in good shape, with 15 cm thick concrete, and the structure of the pergola without a roof is not heavy, then it installed on metal thrust bearings right on the site ... The horizontal support beams are reinforced with diagonal beams. This is not difficult to do, just saw off four bars at an angle of 45 ° and screw with one end to the support post, the other to the horizontal beam. The bars can be made curly to make them look prettier. However, all the stages are well shown in the step-by-step photos.
A pergola is a special design, so the choice of location is of decisive importance. You can use any type of wood you like. It only depends on the capabilities and preferences. This wooden pergola made by hand from southern pine.
So let's take a look at the list of materials that will be needed. It:
a circular saw
bolts with washers
ladder or stepladder
Bars and boards, depending on the size of your pergola
Look like that's it. Now you just have to decide on the size and location. The latter is also very important in terms of deciding how the poles will be installed, in the ground or on a concrete base. Installation in the ground is preferable, although it is more work, but more reliable. Well, then look at the assembly order at step by step photos
The pergola will add elegance to the style and architectural look of your home or garden. There is a wide variety of sizes and styles. This structure is 2 m high and 2.5 m wide.If you think how to build a pergola close to home, it must be borne in mind that standard design has lugs , which protrude by an average of 40 - 50 cm. For construction choose a flat area if not, remove the soil and compact a suitable area. Remember to save the soil for use as bedding material. In addition, consider a place for the pergola, it is advisable to install it in the shade of trees for protection from the afternoon summer sun. It is a common mistake to think that a pergola gives good shade; in fact, the net of beams and rafters gives very little shade. In this project, the pergola will be built at the corners of the existing retaining wall ; although the assembly process is the same as without the wall.
First, make a markup and mark the locations of the posts with stakes. Then measure the diagonals from corner to corner on both sides and make sure the placement is correct.
For supports with a height of 2.5 m, they plan to recess about half a meter in depth, in general it should be 1/4 of the height of the support, the diameter of the holes is about 30 square meters. cm.As a rule, the width should not be less than 25 cm.
After dug the holes, install the supports. When filling with cement, use a broom handle or shovel to make sure there are no air pockets. If so, you may need to add more concrete to bring the level to the surface.
When pouring, be careful not to use too much water, it can weaken the concrete. The consistency should be like butter. When the concrete is ready, fill the hole up to 3 cm to the surface. This allows the concrete to expand and contract as the weather conditions change. Leave to harden for 48 hours.
Prepare support for the beam and rafters. The support beams are attached to the uprights. You will need two by four beams on each side. Attach the rafters on top of the support beams. In this project, nine rafters are used for the roof.
After the concrete has hardened and the beams and rafters are ready, trim the tops of the supports. The rafters on top will eventually add another 15 cm in height.
Installation of beams. Take the time to carefully measure the overhang of each rafter to align the entire set. Install the rafters, securing each in place with two 15cm galvanized screws at each end.
Attach each end of the beam to the top outer surface of each post with two 10cm screws to temporarily hold them in place. Attach the rest of the beams in the same way.
All that remains is to install the rafters and finally fix the beams in place with bolts. Place the rafters on the tops of the joists at 30cm intervals.
After alignment, the beams can be secured to the uprights with 10 cm galvanized bolts. Drill holes in the top and bottom guide. Use a hammer to push the bolts through the beam and post and tighten the nuts.
The lightweight construction of the pergola makes it possible to grow vines and other plants that need support. In principle, in Mediterranean countries, this is its main purpose. Hops, wisteria, ivy or grapes will not only make the pergola more attractive, but also provide even more shade and privacy. If you decide to use a structure for vertical gardening, then the main task when building do it yourself pergolas for plants , it is the right place to choose. Otherwise, the manufacturing procedure has already been described above, the construction of this pergola is fundamentally no different, and step-by-step photos in the gallery will help you.
This, of course, is not quite a pergola in the classical sense, but the author called the article “ pergola with swing ", And it was simply impossible not to come here put, it’s a very attractive place to stay. Without a doubt, an open gazebo, we will call it a pergola, with a swing, a place for a fire and a frame under the screen for a summer cinema looks like a real oasis , a place where you can gather friends and relax with the whole family. True, this project cannot be called cheap, according to the author's calculations, it cost almost three thousand dollars, but this is there with them, in America, we may have it cheaper, they even buy nails for dollars there :) Time spent on construction depends on how hard you want to work and your skill level. If you have at least two assistants who have a general knowledge of carpentry and know how to handle common power tools, you can complete this project in a couple of weekends. The photographs presented by the author can hardly be called step-by-step, they are rather episodic, but if you want to know, how to build a large pergola with a swing with your own hands for your recreation area , the instructions on the site, the link to which is under the gallery, are more or less detailed.
A real classic wooden pergola with everything - built-in shelves, on the sides a modern decorative shade grille ... The lightweight and openwork design is a perfect resting place that is easy to build and you can do it yourself by carving decorative patterns in the rafter tails. In the middle, you can put a bench, or do as in this case, pergola with swing , at your discretion.
Below are pictures where the diagrams show the order of assembling the pergola. Note, if you cut decorative tails on the rafters, do it in advance, before installing on the pergola.
Making a wood pergola with your own hands is like making beautiful furniture ... The finished product demonstrates the craftsmanship and beauty of the wood. But, unlike an openwork home table, a pergola is exposed to the sun, rain, wind and snow. Therefore, it is important to build a structure that can withstand all atmospheric adversity and live a long life. Presented here the wooden pergola consists of four pillars supporting the canopies of the purlins and beams ... The author has designed the parts to ensure the stability and durability of the pergola, but so that the structure does not get too complicated or expensive. The canopy consists of three layers, starting with a knot of rungs, which are fixed to the tops of the posts.
Circular connections in purlins and beams create interlocking frames that not only strengthen the structure, but also make it more attractive ... Since the beams and posts are flush with each other, sandpaper the notches and tops of the posts. This procedure will refine the connections and hide small inconsistencies. Two transverse rails add structural integrity to the pergola, while the through-studs add a more decorative look. All the details of making a pergola with your own hands are shown in step-by-step photos and diagrams.
Photo source www.finehomebuilding.com/2006/05/01/build-a-craftsman-style-pergola Written by Janet Delaney
DIY pergola step by step photo instructions
If there is a free space in the yard that you would like to somehow decorate, make a pergola with your own hands - perfect solution ... If you have a garden and want a cozy place to relax, then again, the best solution is a pergola ... Do you agree? So the author of this project came to this conclusion. Perhaps this project may seem complicated, but you can simply take it as a basis if you are planning a similar construction in your country house or in your yard. The author, on the other hand, needed to implement his idea only two days , however, not without the help of friends. For editing, you will need helpers in any case, and the presence of an additional pair of eyes never hurts, if only to minimize possible stupid mistakes.
The detailed step-by-step instructions are quite voluminous, so I will not post it here, under the gallery there is a link to the site where you can read a description of each step. As you can see, the author decided to make his pergola more comfortable and provided outdoor lights around the perimeter, as well as flower boxes ... True, I used them for herbs - planting tarragon, thyme, mint and basil. If you liked this idea, the step-by-step photo also shows how to make wooden plant boxes ... In general, you can read all the nuances on the site, there is a whole work of art.
This small DIY grape pergola the author built it near his house, it turned out to be such a cozy place for rest. The design is small, there shouldn't be any special manufacturing problems. List of instruments :
List of materials :
galvanized screws with washers of different sizes
stainless washers for fastening wires
2 bags of gravel
2 bags of cement
lumber of the sizes you need (4 beams, 2 boards, slats for crossbars)
How to make a grape pergola with your own hands and even a bench, shown in step-by-step photos. Detailed step-by-step instructions are on the site, but this is not such a complex project, so you can just use it as an idea.
The arch over the walkway is a classic and is shown here how to make a pergola arch with your own hands ... It is quite easy to build such a structure, however, the author did not provide detailed instructions. You may have questions: what are the dimensions of the beams, how to install the pillars, etc. This is not a problem, don't let these small details stop you. The construction of an arch is not much absent from making an ordinary pergola with your own hands. , drawings and step-by-step photos of which are presented above. Just take your time, make a plan, good design can be ruined by improper installation, so check measurements carefully before starting work. When installing the supports, mark the location of the first two supports with wooden pegs, check with a square and a tape measure. Then mark the position of the other two pillars. After all four points are set, check all baseline measurements, including the diagonals, to make sure everything is set correctly. Although there are no instructions, the step-by-step photos show the manufacturing process very well, you definitely do not need an engineering background to figure it out. AND the design example is just an example where you can easily change the elements to suit your own unique preferences and the situation. Simple or complex, big or small, build it however you want!
Gazebos are a popular addition to a country house or suburban area, as they add style and character to the outdoor area. They can vary in size and design, depending on the landscape, and provide a good shelter from the hot sun in places where people like to relax and play. One of the types of summer structures - a pergola, is a good solution for decorating a patio and softening the heat of the scorching sun. ... Pergolas are usually built with four support posts connected from above by rafters and decorative crossbars. As a rule, these are fairly simple structures in design, but you must consider some basic methods in time to get a solid and reliable structure.
To adequately invest in the overhead of lumber, as well as provide sufficient strength, it is best to use 6 × 6 support poles. For a very small structure with a distance of 1.5 m between the posts, 4 × 4 supports will do. However, for a normal large pergola stock 6 × 6 will not be superfluous, and this design looks much more solid. To integrate pergolas into the existing landscape, they are usually built in the shape of a square and close to the house or the nearest structure.
First, align the holes according to the depth specified by local building codes to go deeper under the freeze layer in your area. Compact soil at the bottom of the holes, add gravel for drainage, then anchor the bottom with concrete, keeping the posts perfectly aligned. Check your measurements two or three times.
The support posts should be 6x6 treated wood, designed for contact with the ground. Installing them is a job for two. It must be installed by two people, because it is necessary to simultaneously level and fix the lower part with side boards that hold the pin when the concrete dries. The boards are nailed to the two adjacent sides of the post and the corner down to the ground to reinforce the posts. After aligning, drive the stakes up to the bottom of the bracket. Repeat this procedure for all four posts.
The pergola shown in this article was built for a specific patio, with one of the pillars supporting the patio and attached to the wall of the house.
The key point in the design of a pergola is its visual proportion ... Beams and cross-pieces must be large, otherwise the top of the structure will look undersized and unfinished. It is also necessary to consider the acceptable range based on the size of the pergola. For example, a 3-meter span is too long for a 2x6 board. Not only will it appear flimsy visually, but it will sag over time. Most builders use a minimum of 2x8 for the top frame parts, and that's for a small gazebo, for this pergola they used 2x12 beams, 2x10 rafters and 2x4 for a layer of decorative purlins anchored to the rafters.
Typical for the construction of a pergola is the presence of tails on all horizontal planks sawn with decorative patterns. The tails give the pergola an elegant design and can be cut into a curved profile or angular geometric design - or something in between. The longest edge of the boards is always on top, but that is entirely up to you. Experiment with the design on a paper template, it’s easier to imagine the future design.
Once you've made your decision, cut out the first line and use it as a template to mark the rest.
Cut out the pattern using a combination of a hand saw and a circular saw. Once the first beam is ready, use it as a template to make the tails on all the beams. Do the same for the rafters and purlins. Beams, rafters, and purlins can have different tail designs, but each type of board must match.
The next step is to install the beams. Double beams are attached to the top of the pergola and connect the side posts.
Two people must be installed, two ladders are also required. After leveling the beam at the correct height on the support legs, make sure it is perfectly level. Secure it temporarily with nails until you make a proper connection with the latch. Attach a matching beam to the opposite side of the two posts. Repeat for the opposite side of the pergola, then secure completely by drilling two through holes through the uprights and double joists.
When setting the height of the beams, keeping in mind that they will be the lowest horizontal elements of the structure, do not forget to leave sufficient headroom below. The rafters and purlins will be anchored at the top, and the entire structure must be designed to fit any adjacent structure, in this case the roof. Secure each corner assembly with two 1/2 "bolts ¾, washers, and nuts.
When all beams are secured, drill two 1/2-inch through holes through the beams and posts at each joint and secure each corner node with two bolts. Two pairs of beams will support the weight of the rafters and pergola purlins.
Usually the rafters are slightly smaller than the beams and are installed vertically, crossing the beams at a 90 degree angle and overhanging on each side with decorative rafter tails.
The distance between the rafters will vary depending on the size of the pergola. The most important rule for spacing is equal distance between all rafters. First install the front and rear rafters by attaching them to the support posts above the beam.
Install all other rafters evenly spaced between the front and rear and then attach them to the rafters by hammering in two nails at each joint.
The last layer of lumber in this design is 2 × 4 purlins that are installed vertically above the rafters at a 90 degree angle, essentially forming a mesh. Note that the purlin layer is an additional decorative piece that works best for large pergolas.
Painting and treating wood is a good way to add color and also protect the wood from moisture and insects. Cedar and mahogany contain natural preservative oils that help protect against insect and rot infestation, but processed wood is much cheaper.
Treatment with water-soluble preservatives leaves moisture in the tree. For best results, let the wood dry for 2-4 weeks before processing.Despite the simple construction, building a pergola requires minimal experience, reliable tools and intelligent decisions during the planning stage. Take the time to carefully plan every aspect of the project, especially making specific notes on how to attach the pergola to the existing structure if that's what your project requires.
Do you like pergolas? To the authors of this project, Mark and Teresa Clement too. The proposed version of the original design may interest you. It all starts with design. The essence of this simple structure of posts, beams, rafters and purlins is that the look and feel of the design possibilities are almost limitless. But you still need to do it "right" or you end up with something a little different, a gazebo that no one uses, or a colossus that darkens the backyard door. Start with questions. How will the pergola be used most of the time? How many people are supposed to fit there? Are you planning to cook something there, or will it be just a place to socialize? Or both? You can make a cozy spot, say, near a stream. Or, as in this case, the pergola will serve as part of the patio design around the house, depending on the width and depth of the pergola. The location in the yard affects the size of the materials. If you're dealing with uneven terrain, that's a different story. In general, you need a sweet spot, balancing the height, width and depth of the pergola with each other and the materials you choose to build. As a rule, the bottom of the beam is the reference point for composing heights. Anything below two meters (the height of a typical doorway) will make people feel like they need to tilt their heads to enter. Sounds strange, but it's true. The best height to the bottom of the beam is approximately 2.80 m, which makes the space comfortable and cozy, and at the same time grand and soaring. You can also add a second, lower level to provide a seating area that can also serve as a table for plates, dishes, cups and food. What is the best tree for a pergola? In this case, the authors used red cedar. It is great for this type of construction, is easy to maintain and has unique textures and patterns. Of course, there is no hard and fast rule when choosing a material for a pergola, so it's up to you what to use. The dimensions are also a matter of taste, for example 3.5 meters is too long a gap - both for the boards and for the eyes.
Pillars and beams
Make marks on the ground before moving the template to dig holes for the posts. For the template, the authors used a frame, which is not just simpler, it is much simpler. Just make a box with the outer dimensions of the placements. In other words, the pillars are placed inside the box. All pergola sizes are where the rafters end, but you build the box where the posts go.
One meter deep holes create a lot of dirt, to protect the grass, tarps can be used.
Install the jumper (diagonals + crossmember look like A). The cross piece makes it easier for you to move the box. Adjust the position of the template as accurately as possible, making sure it is parallel to any object within 3 meters or so, such as a fence or porch. Carefully mark the locations for each rack.
Digging is perhaps the least fun activity in any project. The depth should be about 70 cm. Even in warm climates, it is not recommended to set it less than 60 cm so that the ground will hold the supports in place.
Then we install the pillars. You can saw them on the spot, you can measure the template to the desired height and then saw to the required length on the ground. To adjust the height, add gravel to the pit to raise the post. Each message requires two diagonal curly braces. Anything around 1.5 m.
Fill the pillars with concrete.
Use a template to outline the appearance of the rafter's tail and then transfer it to the rest. The decorative details of the rafters will give your pergola a special look.
Saw off one beam and screw it to the model, later you can use it as a template.
The bar clamps work well for holding the bar in place. It's the same with the rafters.
There is a lot of sawing. Then mark the sides of all parts so as not to figure out for a long time where the top is where the bottom is during installation.
Lastly, the purlins are installed, fixed perpendicular to the rafters, they fix everything in place, adding shadow lines and depth to the structure.
The grass is ideal for the floor of the gazebo. It's cool and convenient. You can just as easily build a platform or add it later. In any case, both approaches are combined. The last photo shows the finished pergola with all its parts from scratch. The combination of posts, beams, rafters and purlins can be altered for nearly limitless design options.
Pole designs have always been popular. The main thing, it is quite easy to build a wooden pergola with your own hands from poles ... There are no specific rules that must be followed during construction, it all depends on your imagination. The idea of a wooden pergola for landscaping in combination with a wicker fence made of vines can create a unique style for your site. Everything you need to build original wooden pergola with your own hands , this is:
thick hardwood poles (about 70 cm long)
short straight poles and decorative branches.
From tools : hammer, delimber, pruner, nails and wire .
Step 1 : Prepare the poles. You can use both dried poles and fresh wood. If the wood is dry, pre-drill the nail holes. I used willow branches, you can choose other types of hardwood that grow in your area.
Step 2 : We make two rectangular side panels. The X shape will make the structure more reliable and safe.
Step 3 : Add some decor. Use decorative twigs to create an attractive sidebar pattern. In the photo, the author made a number of Gothic arches, fixed them with nails and cut off the excess with a pruner.
Step 4 : To create a triangular pediment for the top of the pergola, hold the thick branches together. Make two of these triangular pediments.
Step 5 : Make the gables decorative too, add some beautiful branches around
Step 6 : Assemble the pergola, nail the side panels and install the gables
Step 7 : Add slats in the middle of the upper part of the structure.
Step 8 : Install the corner bracket at the front and rear.
Tip: To prolong the life of your pergola, mix 2 parts linseed oil and one part turpentine ... Spray the structure with this mixture. Remember to clean the spray tip when finished.
Photo source https://www.minimalisti.com/diy-wooden-pergola-hints-ideas.html By Beam Willow
How to build a pergola with your own hands we have disassembled, but we still need to add a little coziness, create a special atmosphere for relaxation. Design, high-quality materials and reliable construction are all good of course, but without the decorative elements of the pergola, these are just pillars and crossbars to create a comfortable environment, the easiest option, sew curtains for pergola ... Can I sew them with my own hands? Of course. To do this, you will need:
white cloth (I used 18 m)
set of eyelets 40 pcs
hooks 8 pcs
Which fabrics you want to use is entirely up to you. Some can be very expensive, so the author prefers the usual one. waterproof cotton fabric ... In principle, you can take a regular sheet, it depends on what size you need and what the weather conditions are in the area where you live. It may not be necessary to use a good fabric if wind and rain are your usual weather. The length of the curtains, of course, depends on the height of the pergola. It is possible that the sides have different heights, visually it is not noticeable, and when you hang the curtains, it will not look beautiful. Therefore, careful measurements must be taken to ensure that everything matches. The width must be determined depending on the fabric and the size of the openings between the beams. ... After that you measure out, you can cut out eight pieces of hinged panels. Further, step-by-step photos show how to make holes and insert metal bushings for curtains , fasten the hooks and hang the chain. Well, everyone can probably cope with the task of hanging curtains.
The pergola is a flat structure that can simultaneously perform the role of a gazebo and trellis for climbing plants ... Of course, it has few practical functions, but it is ideal as a decoration for a garden or plot. Mostly wooden pergolas are made, you have already seen two dozen examples above, but this is not the only material for making.
Very nice, lighter and more airy look pergolas made of metal ... These photos show just one of these designs. The author likes thin lines and has welding, so here he presents his own version of a metal pergola with his own hands. For the assembly (or welding) procedure, see the step-by-step photos.
Here is a small gallery of handmade wooden arbors. Of course, you can collect more photos, because there are millions of options. Each gazebo, made not according to a template, but with your own hands, even according to standard drawings, is still a work of art. Here are collected relatively simple designs that are within the power of any master who does not have much experience. There are, of course, examples of industrial products, which may come in handy.