What do you need to open a bank?

The banking business is one of the most difficult, but also one of the most profitable. The organization of such a business requires special training and knowledge. It is almost impossible for an ordinary person from the street to open his own bank, since opening a bank requires huge investments. Despite all the difficulties, the idea of ​​having your own personal bank does not leave the owners of large holdings. This becomes necessary because your bank helps in servicing.

Opening a bank in Russia is difficult. This is due to the increased oppression of the Central Bank. If at the beginning of 2010 there were about a thousand banks of various sizes, but now the figure has halved. The Central Bank is actively "cleaning up" this sector from unscrupulous players. It is becoming increasingly difficult for small banks to compete with large ones, which simply crush them. Many investors believe that it is easier to buy a ready-made bank with licenses, staff, and established business than to open it all from scratch.

Opening of a new bank.

Before you open your bank, you need to seriously prepare. You need to have a ready-made business plan, capital, come up with a name, choose the scope of the bank's activities. There are many types of banks. These can be banks specializing in retail clients, small businesses, financial transactions, etc.

Each type of activity requires its own license, without which the Central Bank will not even allow accepting payment.

Not all entrepreneurs want to have their own bank. This is due to the fact that few people have a capital of 300-500 million rubles. for initial launch. But in order to obtain a general license, the capital must be at least 900 million rubles. There are also few people who really understand the banking business to the smallest detail. It is impossible to run a bank without experience. Beginning bankers are intimidated by the huge competition. Indeed, in Russia there is a huge number of banks of all sizes and types of activity.

Before getting the idea of ​​opening your own bank, it is worth remembering that this is not only an office where cashiers and managers work. This is a kind of "iceberg" where customers only see the top. In the part that is hidden, things are boiling even more. This is where huge amounts of money are stored, financial transactions are carried out, there is a game on exchange rates, trading, and so on.

You can open a bank from scratch. This will be an expensive and time-consuming process that will not always pay off. But the new bank is a clean slate where you can earn an excellent business reputation.

If you buy a ready-made bank, you can immediately have a ready-made infrastructure, an experienced staff, and an established business. True, here the kit may also include a damaged reputation, negative customers, debts and other troubles.

How to register a bank?

The registration process itself is not as complicated as all further actions. For this you need:

  • Register with the IFTS as a legal entity. To do this, you need to decide on the form of organization. It can be LLC, PJSC, JSC, CJSC. The tax office does not have its own requirements for this. She only enters the organization in the register and issues a certificate of state registration of a new banking institution.
  • Draw up an agreement on the establishment of a bank, in which the name is entered. Then he is sent to the department for obtaining licenses to obtain permission on the admissibility of the use of such a name. Within 5 days. a written response is received about permission or refusal.
  • Selection of a composition of founders with a good reputation, a stable financial position, and no problems with the law. The founders cannot leave their post for 3 years.
  • Prepare a documentation package. Here you need to be ready for paperwork. All documents must be legally correct.

What documents are needed to open a bank?

  • Bank charter. It contains all the basic information about the new bank: its name, form of organization, location, a list of ongoing transactions, data on the authorized capital, operating procedures and other information that does not contradict the law.
  • Developed business plan. It should contain a business development plan, calculations for payback, potential profitability, etc.
  • Documents on the lease or ownership of the premises where the future bank will be located. The room must meet the requirements for reliability.
  • Documents for payment of state fees for issuing and registering a license.
  • Constituent documents, documents from the founders confirming their financial position, sources of origin of money.
  • Minutes of the meeting of directors, decisions on the approval of the charter, business plan, name, etc.
  • FAS permission to register a new bank.
  • Various documentation, including certificates for equipment, software, floor plans, security contracts, etc.
  • Documents for the issue of shares, if the bank is created in a joint-stock form.
  • Forms, copies of passports, documents on education, work experience of founders, directors, chief accountants, heads of departments. Experience in banking must be at least two years, no criminal record.

All documents are considered by the Central Bank within 6 months, after which the founders receive an answer: positive or refusal.

What licenses are needed?

All banking operations are carried out only if the bank has the appropriate licenses. Each license specifies the transactions that the bank can carry out, including the currency of the transaction. For currencies other than the ruble, you need to obtain a separate license.

The decision to grant licenses is announced only after the new bank provides all the necessary documents on time and without comment. If the Central Bank's answer is positive, then the newly-made owners of the bank have a month to pay the declared authorized capital. Otherwise, the approval procedure will have to go through again, and this again, at least six months.

To deposit funds, the Central Bank opens a correspondent account. As soon as the amount is received in full, the Central Bank issues licenses within 3 days.

To perform all types of operations, a general license is needed. To do this, the owners must contribute at least 900 million rubles to the Criminal Code. If someone thinks that this is the end of the financial injections, then this is not so. The new bank must create reserve funds, classify its assets, comply with the Central Bank's regulations and its requirements for doing business.

How much money do you need to open a bank?

Here we are not even talking about a sum with six-digit zeros. Nobody will name the exact amount, since it will depend on the scale of the business, profile, staff qualifications, etc. The minimum amount for opening a small bank is 300 million rubles. This is without taking into account the cost of equipment, software, staff, premises, advertising, security, etc. These costs will take about the same amount.

Recent studies show that customers now prefer to be served in a bank with a developed infrastructure, a large number of ATMs, an office, and a good Internet bank. To create such a bank for 500 million rubles. unrealistic. This, according to some information, will have to pay about 5 billion rubles. Even if the future owner has such amounts and is ready to open his own bank, you should be prepared that the business may become unprofitable. To pay off the bank, you will have to work for at least 6-8 years and only then you can expect profit.

What kind of staff is needed in the bank?

It is quite difficult to find suitable personnel, although the labor market is overflowing with specialists. These should be people - professionals in their field with an impeccable reputation. Standard departments in the bank should include:

  • Credit department.
  • Audit department.
  • Economic planning and accounting department.
  • Deposit department.
  • Credit Management Department.
  • International Financial Operations Department.
  • Operations departments, etc. depending on the specification of the bank.

Qualified personnel are expensive. People with good qualifications, who are professionals in their field, will definitely pay off the investment in themselves. No matter how good a bank is, it all depends on the quality of the recruited staff. According to surveys, clients are ready to be served in a bank even with not quite cheap tariffs or favorable conditions, only if they like the staff.

Thus, opening a new bank is a complex and costly procedure that requires careful preparation and certain knowledge and experience. This is one of the most expensive types of business, which at the initial stage requires colossal financial investments. Now there are more than five hundred banks operating in Russia, the competition is enormous and there are already few customers, which can be surprising. To create a profitable bank, you need to choose a suitable niche that can lead to profit.

Article author, finance expert

Hi I author of this article. I have a higher education. Finance and banking specialist. For more than 3 years he worked in commercial banks of the Russian Federation. I've been writing about finance for over 5 years. Always on top of the best deposits and cards. I make profitable deposits and get high cashback on cards. Please put appraisal my article, it will help improve it.

According to PWC data, about 20% of businesses in the field of Financial solutions are at risk due to the onset of the so-called fintech. This is due to the fact that young, ambitious, and also tech-savvy companies take advantage of the weaknesses of classical financial institutions and offer the service that people need.

At the same time, about 25% of all fintech projects encroach on the "sacred" - money transfers. And as practice shows, they often offer conditions many times better than ordinary banks: instant transfers around the world, low commissions, profitable currency conversion.

The demand for the services of modern payment systems or neo-banks is growing, which leads to the rapid emergence of more and more new projects in this area. The coronavirus pandemic has only increased the demand for remote services of all sorts, including financial.

In this article, you will learn how you can open your own online bank and do it as quickly as possible.

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Is it realistic to launch an online bank in two weeks?

If you break down the process of creating your online bank into simple steps, then the process will look something like this:

  • Registration of a company that will become a bank;
  • Obtaining a financial license;
  • Installation of hardware and software;
  • Attracting customers.

The longest and most important process, of course, is obtaining a financial license. Unfortunately, it will not be possible to pass it in two weeks.

However, we know from experience that some clients already have one or another financial license. We will talk about the types of licenses in more detail later, but I'll clarify right away: to open an online bank, it is not necessary to obtain a purely banking license. It could very well be a license to issue electronic money and other permissions.

And it is precisely such licenses obtained in Estonia, Lithuania, Malta that many entrepreneurs have. They can use an existing asset and launch an online bank in about two weeks - using ready-made software solutions and infrastructure of special services.

Now let's go over all the stages of launching your online bank in general terms.

Registration of a company - a future bank

Before obtaining a license, you must create a legal entity that will receive this license. It is impossible to issue a bank or other financial permit to an individual.

Most often, it is recommended to register a company in the same jurisdiction where you plan to obtain a license - this will simplify the work. Moreover, in some cases, you can open a company in one place, and get a license in another. This is often required when you start working in several markets and everywhere you need your own license.

Registration of a company takes from a couple of days to several weeks - it depends purely on the country of registration and the form chosen. Joint stock companies often require more training than limited liability companies or corporations.

To register the company itself, you will need the following documents:

  • A copy of the passport (certified and translated) of the owner of the company (owners);
  • Copy of the passport of the director / directors;
  • Proof of residential address for owners and directors - most often a utility bill no older than 3 months.

Other documents may be required.

The cost of the company starts from 2-3 thousand euros excluding the statutory fund. The size of the fund is determined by what kind of license and where you get it.

Obtaining a financial license for your own online bank

When we talk about a modern online bank, we mean those financial institutions that can provide banking services: open accounts, provide money transfers, convert currencies, etc.

Due to changes in the legislation of many countries, a full-fledged banking license is not always required to launch such a project. Often, a license for the issue of electronic money, a license of a payment provider - EMI, PI, and others will do.

In addition, such a license can be obtained faster and with fewer requirements. However, we will consider several interesting options, both for obtaining a banking license and electronic money.

I'll clarify right away in order to avoid misunderstandings: you can get a banking license in almost any country. In theory. In practice, in most developed countries, a banking license is very expensive, and the procedure for issuing it is dreary and long. I propose ideas, how, at least a little, but to reduce bureaucratic delays and start your own bank.

Vanuatu Banking License

Vanuatu is an offshore jurisdiction in the Caribbean. Financial and business center, which also allows registering companies and obtaining a banking license.

A bank in Vanuatu can operate internationally. The authorized capital must be from $ 500,000. To obtain a license, you will need at least one personal meeting with a representative of the Reserve Bank of Vanuatu. Accounting, reporting, payment of duties are, as they say, by default.

The term for considering an application for a license is from 4 months.

It should be borne in mind that when obtaining a license, the regulatory authorities - and this applies not only to Vanuatu, but also to all other countries - carefully check the owners of the company, directors, managers and persons responsible for procedures, security, and so on.

They will check the origin of funds, the history of each top manager and the business plan in which you describe the structure of your work.

Dominica Banking License

The offshore jurisdiction of Dominica also offers registration of international banks. A local license allows you to conduct any banking activity: open accounts, conduct transactions, issue loans, and so on.

To obtain a license, you will need to register a local company, prepare a business plan, and prove that your funds are of legal origin. Authorized fund - from 1 million US dollars.

The authorities require the submission of documents proving that the bank managers are competent specialists, and the owners with a clean reputation and capital.

Financial license in Lithuania

Perhaps, it is the Lithuanian license that is currently one of the most popular among various financial startups. This is due to several factors:

  • Relative cheapness of the license;
  • The license holders are under the control of the Central Bank of Lithuania and in many ways this license is similar to the banking one;
  • The license is suitable for a variety of types of business: electronic money, payment systems, peer-to-peer and others;
  • Access to the European Union market;
  • The license allows for remote client identification;
  • The application can be submitted before the registration of the company and create it only after confirmation.

Obtaining a license takes approximately 6 months. High requirements are set for the company's managers: reputation, education, experience. The authorized capital depends on the type of license: EMI - 350,000 EUR, PI - 125,000 EUR.

License to issue electronic money in Malta

In Malta you will be able to obtain an EMI - Electronic Money Institution license. Features of this jurisdiction:

  • Statutory fund from 350,000 euros;
  • Clear requirements for a company that wants to obtain a license;
  • Malta's focus on modern technologies and solutions, including at the legislative level;
  • It is part of the EU, which means that the license is valid throughout the entire European Union;
  • The term for obtaining a license is from 3 months.

Banking license for Saint Lucia

In Saint Lucia, you can get an international banking license of two types:

  1. Class A - international activity is permitted with third parties. Authorized fund from 1 million US dollars;
  2. Class B is a limited license that allows you to work only with those clients who were declared at the time of obtaining the license. Authorized fund from 250,000 US dollars.

You will need to prove the legality of the funds, provide information about the owners and managers of the bank.

In some cases, liability insurance of $ 500,000 or more may be required.

It is forbidden to do business with residents of Saint Lucia.

Registration of a payment institution in the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is a European country with several large payment systems already operating. You can also get a local license.

To do this, you need a local company. The authorized capital depends on the types of activities:

  • Main activity - 20,000 euros;
  • Basic and electronic communication service provider - 50,000 euros;
  • Provider of a full package of services, including accepting and withdrawing cash - from 125,000 euros.

Also, there must be human resources, technical capabilities and procedures to comply with the requirements of the law.

Financial license in Estonia

At some point, it was the EMI license in Estonia that became very popular. It was called a crypto license, and many entrepreneurs rushed to get it, especially since it was relatively simple.

However, then many had problems opening accounts, since it is impossible to open an account for a company not related to Estonia in Estonia. We helped to solve this issue and now the situation is many times easier - there are a variety of solutions for businesses with a similar license.

License holders can provide payment services, provide loans, create payment systems, and more.

Share capital - from 350,000 euros. Consideration of an application for a license takes 6 months.

***

These are not all existing solutions. For example, you can get a banking license in Sierra Leone or in the EU countries. Sometimes it is possible to buy an existing bank, for example, in Panama or another part of the world. It is always best to discuss this moment with specialists, taking into account your tasks, target market and capital stock.

Installation of technical and software for online banking

The next step is to launch an online bank. Today, it is not even necessary to have a physical representative office of a bank to start providing services. Everyone has before their eyes an example of Revolut or its older competitors - PayPal, Transferwise.

With a financial license, you can go two ways:

  • Create your own infrastructure, write code or buy ready-made solutions, installing on your hardware;
  • Or use someone else's infrastructure.

The first path is the path of large players who have a margin of safety, resources for massive investments, often comparable to the price of a license. It takes time to start.

However, today you can delegate a lot, including creating your online bank and launching a project in 2-3 weeks.

Yes, thanks to the so-called white label solutions, you can launch your own Internet bank, add a mobile application to it, and all this in about one month.

The best part is that your customers won't even know that you are using third-party services. In addition, a large number of headaches for ensuring the functioning of the system are immediately relieved for you. All technical and partly legal issues (for example, customer verification) are resolved on the side of the software provider.

You create a product, offer it to customers, and other people take care of logistics, inspection and service. For the benefit of your business.

Client search

At this stage, you are already connecting all your savings from the previous point of power and directing them to attracting customers, to building relationships with them. And the more clients you have, the more promising your business is.

***

The banking business or, more precisely, the "business of providing banking services" has become easier and more accessible for entrepreneurs today. Fintech projects compete on a par with banks and often offer convenient solutions, beating banks in their own field.

You can join this game and do it in a short time. Why not give it a try?

How to open your bank in Russia: stages of organization and necessary documents

  • Variants
  • Required documents and the procedure for obtaining them
  • Possible range of services
  • About suitable premises and necessary equipment
  • Staff
  • Necessary costs
  • Payback period
  • findings

Bankers all over the world are considered to be very rich and powerful people. It is very difficult to enter their circle: this requires not only capital, but also meeting certain requirements for founders. Ordinary citizens do not even dream of opening their own bank. Those who are able to do this do not need advice.

Nevertheless, the article will be useful to a wide range of readers. It describes the establishment of a bank in stages, outlines the costs associated with this operation, and the criteria by which the government regulator issues a permit. Knowing all this, you can, when going for a loan or making a deposit, assess the reliability of the institution.

It seems that information about the conditions for creating their own bank for an ordinary citizen is almost devoid of practical value. However, who knows? Maybe the future billionaire will read this material ...

Variants

Let's start with the fact that banks are different. The first division is state and commercial. For obvious reasons, we are only interested in the second category.

Further, there is a classification according to a functional criterion (if it is simpler - what exactly the financial institution will do). Exists three kinds commercial banks:

  1. Universal (retail) ... As the name implies, the range of services is maximally expanded. It includes accepting funds for deposits, issuing loans, settlement and cash services and all other types of work with clients that you can imagine. Most of the Russian banks belong to the category of universal banks, which is logical. An expanded range of services increases the likelihood of attracting a client due to the ability to meet his needs.
  2. Investment ... Banks specialize in investing in a variety of promising projects that serve as a source of profit. The second direction is operations with securities, which are also investments (direct, portfolio, etc.). This activity is usually called financial, and its essence is very fascinatingly described in the trilogy of the great American writer Theodore Dreiser. Recommended for reading by anyone interested in working on stock exchanges and investments. Moreover, it is generally very interesting.
  3. Savings ... Probably, it would be more correct to call them deposit and credit according to the principle of their work. They borrow money from some people, lend it to others, and the difference between payments on deposits and fees for borrowing is the profit of these institutions. The same activity is included in the range of services of the universal bank.

Businessmen

Some sources identify the fourth type of financial and credit activity - settlement. It refers to banks serving corporate accounts. The same is done by universal organizations, so it makes no sense to consider this category as separate.

All of these options require a license from the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, but there are types of services that require special permission (for example, operations with precious metals, customs clearance, etc.)

There are only two ways to become a banker: purchasing a ready-made financial institution and creating a new one. The first way is simpler, and does not require a special description, although many surprises may lie in wait for the likely owner on it. We will pay more attention to the second.

Required documents and the procedure for obtaining them

People with an impeccable financial reputation can open their own bank in Russia from scratch. To confirm it, the Main Territorial Administration (in the field) and the Banking Supervision Committee of the Russian Federation conduct a thorough check of all transactions carried out by this person during his business history. This is important to know, since the identification of any transactions of a dubious nature will inevitably lead to a refusal to license. An attempt to hide information has more dire consequences.

To create your own bank, you first need to register an economic entity for the type of activity "financial services". In practice, it has the legal form of a joint stock company (open or closed).

Then, after the registration of the joint-stock company, a name is invented and a constituent package is formed, which is transferred to the first controlling instance - the Main Territorial Administration (denoted by the gloomy abbreviation GPU). Before agreeing with him, it makes no sense to engage in licensing, since the outcome is not known in advance.

A positive result is expressed by a document confirming the possibility of carrying out financial and credit activities by this group of persons. It is also important that the founders have an amount that is the minimum authorized capital (more on that later). If money is not enough, rejection is inevitable.

The information is rechecked by the GPU and submitted to the Central Bank, where the procedure is repeated with even greater care in relation to all attached documents.

The last word is with the Banking Supervision Committee. In case of his positive decision, the papers are transferred to the Federal Tax Service. The tax authorities check everything again, just in case, but their main task is to enter data on the new bank in the register of credit organizations in accordance with Federal Law 123-FZ. A month from this moment of this event, the institution is obliged to deposit the authorized capital into its account. Earlier - you can.

Documents

A package of documents. attached to the application for opening a bank includes:

  • List of founders.
  • Detailed business plan.
  • Minutes of the meeting of founders.
  • Documentary evidence of payment of the state fee.
  • Registration certificate of a legal entity.
  • Personal data of bank managers (director, chief accountant and their deputies).
  • Conclusion on the audit.
  • Confirmation of compliance with the requirements for organizations conducting cash transactions.
  • Help from the Federal Antimonopoly Service.
  • List of attached documents.

Multi-stage verification creates considerable difficulties. Refusal is possible at every stage of bank registration. For this reason, financial institutions are more likely to buy than create.

Possible range of services

The set of possible main directions of the bank's activity is listed above, but it needs to be clarified in some details. Financial institutions can provide the following services:

  • Consulting. Bank clients often need advice on various occasions. They involve attracting new depositors, relate to the profitability of investments, lending issues, transactions with securities, etc. It is important that the bank has employees who are able to answer all questions clearly and in simple words. A number of consultations are provided on a paid basis.
  • Financial management. Banks make transactions, that is, money transfers from one bank account to another. Errors are not allowed.
  • Brokerage activity. The service is not provided by all banks, but this opportunity contributes to the expansion of the client base at the expense of people who want to become participants in the stock market and invest in precious metals.
  • Investment services. The bank itself can invest money in promising projects or attract customer funds, performing an intermediary function.
  • Insurance. This direction can take the form of franchising or joint venture.
  • Leasing. The method of acquiring assets through finance lease is becoming more and more popular.
  • Factoring.
  • Customs clearance.
  • Trust operations (financial management under the client's power of attorney).

The technological effectiveness of financial services is growing these days. Banks have appeared that do without "physical" branches and operate in an interactive mode.

Their standard range of services:

  • depository;
  • lending of all types;
  • collection;
  • provision of guarantees;
  • operations with precious metals, traveller's checks and currency;
  • settlement and cash services;
  • acquiring;
  • cells for storing valuables;
  • Internet banking.

The bank may refuse some types of services, the absence of others leads to unjustified losses or is completely excluded.

Consultant

About suitable premises and necessary equipment

When organizing a classic universal bank, it is advisable to use the word "office" in the plural. Exceptions can be financial institutions operating in the virtual space (for example, Tinkoff) or serving only businesses. If the work involves the personal presence of the client, he needs to create the most comfortable conditions, including the ability to quickly find an office and easily get to it.

Ideally, all branches are located near public transport interchanges and have parking lots. The area of ​​each office is no less than a hundred "squares" (the central one may be somewhat more impressive). The number to start with is at least five. It is necessary to renovate the premises in compliance with the corporate style and corporate colors in a single style. The current trend is the creation of a single space, divided by low (not up to the ceiling) sound-absorbing partitions of light shades.

It is more profitable to use your own real estate, but if the costs of acquiring them are not yet possible, a long-term lease is acceptable.

The younger the bank, the more advanced equipment it should be equipped with. The client needs to make it clear that the financial institution is open “for a long time”. A bank that has been operating for a very long time and has won a solid reputation can afford to operate jamming printers and computers of not the latest models, although this is also undesirable.

In addition to intra-office equipment, other specialized equipment will be required - acquiring terminals, bill acceptors, ATMs, etc. All this should work reliably and, with one form, confirm the institution's high reputation.

Staff

Bank employees have always had high requirements regarding specialized education, ability to work, diligence, attentiveness and appearance. New financial institutions often employ well-trained graduates of economics academies and departments. Young people who start as an ordinary operator, having shown their qualities, have a chance to make a successful career. Plus they are usually not spoiled for money.

About salaries: when calculating them, it is more justified to focus on the modal level (that is, the most common size) than on the national average. At present, it is about 26 thousand rubles. A smaller reward is bad: a young specialist, having learned a lot, will start looking to the side. Much more is also not good, since the new bank has not yet achieved this opportunity. The main incentive should be a perspective, of course, supported by an acceptable income.

Experienced specialists are also needed. They are recruited on a competitive basis or poached from other banks with more favorable conditions. They get paid more than newbies.

The number of staff for each office is up to two dozen employees. The exact number depends on the structure of the branch and the range of services it provides. We need account managers, credit managers, international payments, planners, accountants, clerks, security specialists, system specialists, etc.

Necessary costs

Founders need to have an amount of three hundred million rubles - this is the minimum authorized capital for opening a bank. This money does not belong to expenses, but it should be.

How much will have to be spent on documentary registration is not known exactly. Together with the licensing of various types of financial activities, analysts say, this cost item is approaching 50 million rubles ... The amount is almost always a trade secret.

Other expenses depend on various factors: the price of real estate or its rent, the average salary in the region, the cost of equipment, the ambitions of the founders, the nature and direction of the activity, and other circumstances.

We also need advertising. Without it, potential clients will not know about the new financial institution and its tempting offers.

rubles

The main costs are summarized in the table:

Expenditure Amount, RUB million
Establishment and licensing fifty
Commercial real estate lease 40
Repair of premises ten
Hardware and furniture 70
Advertising 0.5
Associated costs thirty
Total: 200.5

In order not to bore the reader with a boring detailed listing of expenditure items, one can immediately name a figure - half a billion rubles, together with the founding capital. This is according to most experts minimal the amount to open a bank in an optimistic scenario. In real life, it is usually 4–6 times larger.

Payback period

Payback statistics for financial institutions are not available, and in most cases they refer to confidential information. Plus, they don't open very often. According to analysts, subject to effective management, the costs of creating a bank (from 500 million to 6 billion rubles, taking into account the key rate of the Central Bank) can return to investors within 5 years ... But this is not always the case. The payback period sometimes reaches a decade.

However, the profitability of the institution is not always decisive. If the founder is another bank, disproportionately larger, then the subsidiary has other functions, in addition to direct profit, for example, representation in the region (the so-called "flag demonstration"). In such cases, payback is secondary, and there is no rush with it.

However, five years, and even ten years is quite a good indicator for the financial and credit sphere.

findings

Opening your own bank will be very expensive. The entry price is measured in hundreds of millions and billions of rubles. In addition to money costs, an impeccable reputation of each of the founders is required. Documenting a new financial institution is difficult due to the multi-level verification of all the information provided.

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How to open your bank in Russia: step-by-step instructions and necessary documents

How to open your bank: detailed step-by-step instructions

In the modern world there are enough rich people who do not know where to wisely spend their money. Someone just lives for their own pleasure, not doing anything, but there are those who invest their finances to develop their own business.

One of the most difficult but profitable areas of business is the banking sector. To start working in it, in addition to impressive capital investments, you need a lot of experience in the field of financial services and the availability of special knowledge.

As practice shows, it is quite difficult to open a credit organization, and even more difficult to successfully manage it. According to statistics, many companies close several years after opening.

Nevertheless, successful entrepreneurs continue to wonder how to open their bank in the Russian Federation from scratch. The step-by-step instructions provided in this article will help you with this.

So, you have clearly decided for yourself that you want to engage in this particular type of activity, and you also have a large start-up capital. However, before we figure out how to open a bank in Russia from scratch, let's look at the main formats of this kind of business.

The directions of activity today can be as follows:

  1. Market banks. They specialize in establishing and maintaining relationships between various financial institutions. The main part of assets in this case is formed from financial resources of other credit institutions. Earning in this format of doing business consists in performing speculative transactions, for example, investing in stocks or bonds.
  2. Credit banks. As you might guess from the name, they are engaged in the provision of consumer money loans.
  3. Settlement financial institutions. They provide services to wealthy clients and manage their funds.
  4. Retail banks. The most numerous group, combining a little from each of the organizations discussed above. Their advantage lies in their versatility and versatility.

Thus, if you want you to have your own bank, then first you need to decide on the format in which it will function. Qualified financiers with extensive experience in the financial sector argue that retail organizations are the best option.

Legal aspects

Let's dwell on this in more detail. As with any other type of business, the implementation of a financial services project begins with registration. This raises a completely natural question about what documents are needed to open a bank.

It should be noted right away that for this kind of companies, the standard form is an open or closed joint stock company.

As for the classifier of all-Russian products, then you should choose the type of activity "Financial services, except for insurance and pension provision."

After settling all legal formalities, you will need to submit information about the credit institution and its full name to the Main Territorial Administration of your region of residence. This is a very important step, since without written approval, there is absolutely no point in obtaining a license to provide banking services.

Answering the question of how to open your own bank, a few words should be said about the authorized capital. To obtain a license, you must have at least 300 million rubles in free circulation at your disposal. When you have a written agreement on hand, you need to submit the information to the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.

It is he who makes the decision to allow or prohibit the opening of a credit institution. If your project is approved, then the information about the new company is transferred to the tax office, which will enter it in the credit register.

Once this happens, you will have only 1 month to deposit funds into the share capital account.

As for the package of necessary documents, it includes:

  1. Statement.
  2. List of constituent documents.
  3. Business plan for opening a bank.
  4. Minutes on the holding of the constituent assembly.
  5. Receipt for payment of government fees.
  6. A copy of the document certifying the passage of state registration.
  7. Questionnaires of employees holding managerial positions.
  8. The opinion of an independent company on the compliance of the financial statements with reality.
  9. A package of documents required to obtain an opinion on the observance of the basic rules when making cash transactions.
  10. A document issued by the Federal Antimonopoly Service.
  11. Written consent to open a new credit institution.
  12. A complete list of all founders.

The package of documents is standard regardless of what format you open the bank. To speed up the process of launching an institution, it is recommended to be very serious about its preparation, since it takes a lot of time.

Possible list of services

You already know what documents are needed to open a bank, as well as the procedure for implementing the project. Now you must define for yourself the main direction for action. The main goal of any financial institution is to increase income.

There are the following methods for its implementation:

  1. Increasing the customer base.
  2. Expansion of the range of services provided.
  3. Market share increase.

The level of competition in the banking sector is very high, so it will be difficult to scale a business. Based on this, the only way out is to provide as many services as possible.

Among the main ones are:

  1. Consulting on any financial issues.
  2. Cash flow management.
  3. Brokerage service.
  4. Management of investment portfolios of clients.
  5. Insurance services.
  6. Execution of trust, leasing and factoring operations.

Having identified the main working points for yourself, you can start looking for an answer to the question of how to open your bank. The step-by-step instructions that we consider in this article will help you do everything quickly, as efficiently as possible and without unnecessary problems.

Search for premises

Answering the question of how to open your bank from scratch in Russia, it is worthwhile to separately talk about the optimal real estate object in which it will be based. An ordinary office is not suitable for the successful operation of a financial institution, since they are responsible for performing the following functions:

  1. Customer service.
  2. Cash transactions.
  3. Storage of a large cash and material stock.

Based on this, it follows that the premises must meet a number of criteria that must be taken into account at the stage of building an object and performing repair work.

Exterior and interior finishes should be designed in a corporate style, and the layout is carefully thought out and divided into zones.

In addition, the building should be technically strengthened, as well as equipped with all modern security equipment and systems responsible for creating a high level of security.

If you have no idea how to open a bank, the requirements that must be met can be studied on the website of such structures as the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the fire inspection and Rospotrebnadzor. Each organization has its own criteria for assessing the suitability of the premises in which the credit institution will be located, so it is necessary to carefully study all regulatory documents.

Material and technical equipment

If you are thinking about how to open your own bank, you should be aware that you will have to work with very large amounts of money every day. This will require specialized equipment and a powerful material and technical base.

With its help, you can quickly and accurately count cash, sort banknotes at face value, and also check their authenticity. There is a wide range of both individual devices and multifunctional devices on the market.

In addition, you cannot do without ATMs, which must be located in various parts of the city.

Staff

Above, it was described in detail how to open your bank from scratch. However, for its normal and smooth functioning, as well as quality customer service, you need to create a team of qualified specialists.

Providing any financial services is a very responsible activity that requires maximum concentration and responsibility from employees. Therefore, you must be very serious about hiring and training personnel, as even the slightest mistake can lead to large financial losses.

Particular attention should be paid to the search for employees for managerial positions, since it is on them that the effectiveness of the entire organization depends.

The organizational structure of the bank is determined by its charter, in which information on the governing bodies must be detailed.

Top managers are shareholders who meet at least once a year to resolve the most important issues and determine the further development policy of the company. In addition, you will need to create a qualified staff.

How to open your own bank so that it works efficiently and consistently generates large profits? To do this, you need to form the following units:

  • Credit and Audit Departments. The first is engaged in the development of new products, and the second monitors the performance of a financial institution.
  • Planning department. Commercial planning, studying economic indicators, conducting a marketing campaign, public relations, as well as increasing the liquidity of the enterprise.
  • Depository operations management. Working with clients wishing to open a deposit in a bank, managing securities transactions and issuing money into circulation.
  • Credit management. Issuance of short-term and long-term cash loans.
  • International operations management. Placement of deposits in foreign currency.
  • Accounting and operational management. Implementation and accounting of transactions made through the cashier.

In addition, the economic and administrative, accounting and legal departments, as well as the personnel service, are also mandatory. Now you have a detailed understanding of how to open your bank in Russia. However, here every entrepreneur has a question about how much it will cost to develop and launch a project. The amount of initial investment required will be discussed below.

Start-up capital

Let's take a closer look at this aspect. If you decide to open a bank, you should start drawing up a business plan even before registering and receiving all the necessary permits. This will make it possible to realistically assess the required financial resources and the feasibility of investments.

As mentioned earlier, the minimum authorized capital is at least 300 million rubles. In addition, about two hundred more will be spent on organizing offices, creating material and technical equipment, developing a security system and hiring personnel.

It is very difficult to name the exact amount, since it depends on the scale of the business, but the approximate figures are as follows:

  • legal registration - 50,000,000 rubles;
  • authorized capital - 300,000,000 rubles;
  • rental and repair of premises - 50,000,000 rubles;
  • purchase of equipment and office furniture - 70,000,000 rubles;
  • marketing - RUB 500,000;
  • associated costs - 30,000,000 rubles.

In total, it turns out to be 500.5 million rubles. This is the minimum amount, without which it simply does not make sense to talk about opening a bank. If you do not have these funds, then you can think about attracting additional sources of financing or organizing a credit union.

Timeline for reaching the break-even level

The payback depends on many factors, the main among which are the financial situation in the city and the state of the country's economy.

However, according to experts, with careful strategic planning and good advertising, the funds invested in opening a bank fully pay for themselves in an average of 5-10 years.

Such a long period is due to the high level of competition in this niche.

General tips and tricks

So, you know how to open your bank. Are there any ways to make it work as efficiently as possible? To compete adequately with other financial institutions, you must do the following:

  1. Build a well-developed infrastructure.
  2. Develop several loan and depository products with favorable interest rates.
  3. Do not charge for service and additional services.
  4. Form a large staff of qualified specialists so that customers are served as quickly as possible.
  5. Create convenient online banking with a high level of security.
  6. Install a sufficient number of ATMs.

In addition to all of the above, you must constantly work on the reliability of your financial institution, since this is the indicator that worries most investors.

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, opening a bank is a very long and complicated process that requires large financial investments.

However, as statistics show, credit institutions earn stable income, regardless of seasonality, the state of the economy and other factors, so this niche has always been and remains attractive for investment. If you have the required amount of money at your disposal, then feel free to open a bank and you will not regret it.

A source: https://forevernews.ru/kak-otkryt-svoi-bank-v-rossii-poshagovaia-instrykciia-i-neobhodimye-dokymenty/

How to open a bank. A ready-made example of a bank business plan

How to open your bank: detailed step-by-step instructions

Many people who are well familiar with the development trend of the credit and finance market, as well as banking services, have repeatedly wondered how you can open your own bank. It should be noted that this business is far from easy and not everyone can do it. However, with a good business plan, everything can be done. This business plan will help each of us in this difficult task.

Before opening a bank, it is imperative to study and weigh everything. Our task is to tell everyone who wants to know how to open it and what pitfalls to be afraid of.

Bank business plan

We present you a ready-made example of a bank business plan.

Financial

  • The goal of your project is to open a bank.
  • Organizational and legal form. There will be a closed joint stock company.
  • The success of the project. The demand for banking services is growing all the time, so this project is very profitable.

Description of the enterprise

We can assume the opening of this financial institution, the so-called mid-level. There are five types of banks:

  • retail;
  • credit;
  • calculated;
  • market;
  • interbank financial structures.

Absolutely each of the named types has its own specifics. In order to make a choice, you need to know a brief description of each option.

So let's start with a credit bank. Assets in it are based on the debt of their customers, and liabilities on their own funds. In the settlement, the main focus is on settlement and cash services for all its customers.

Regarding the market type, we can say that securities prevail in its assets, and liabilities, as a rule, are formed from their own funds.

A retail bank, for example, is distinguished by asset diversification and the widest range of financial services.

Interbank financial structures are those banks that are characterized by making a profit from interaction with other similar financial institutions.

Currently, there are a huge number of banks of the fourth type. To open, you must register a closed joint stock company, as well as obtain all the necessary documents and permits.

The main ones are:

  • general license of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation for the right to carry out such activities;
  • registration certificate of the Russian State Assay Office;
  • compulsory permission of the State Customs Committee.

Bank staff and its governing bodies

The supreme governing body of the bank is the so-called General Meeting of Shareholders. As a rule, the management of all current activities is carried out by the Management Board.

Main structural divisions

The Guarantee and Lending Department prepares the necessary materials for the Credit Committee, conducts various preparatory work, and much more. Also, this department successfully interacts with many other services of the bank for guarantee and credit operations.

Foreign Economic Activity Department - carries out various functions related to currency control in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.

The Internal Control Service, for example, acts on the basis of the existing Charter of the Bank, as well as the existing Regulation on the Control Service.

Such a service has the right:

  • receive from the necessary persons all documents for the inspection;
  • establish the correspondence of various operations and actions that are carried out by bank employees, internal documents of the bank and much more;
  • involve, if necessary, employees of other departments of the bank;
  • make copies of documents that have been received.

This service reports to the well-known Board of Directors at least once a year.

Description of services

Banks, as a rule, provide clients with services such as:

  • maintenance and opening of various bank accounts;
  • making settlements on behalf of legal entities and individuals;
  • cash services for persons;
  • lending services;
  • issuance of various bank guarantees;
  • service of plastic cards;
  • carrying out various depository operations;
  • brokerage operations in the foreign exchange and stock markets, and much more.

Financial plan

In order to open a small bank today you need at least 100,000,000 rubles. As for the average bank, this figure will already be much higher. However, its payback period is approximately five to ten years. It all depends on its type. As you can see, after passing the bank's payback mark, you can earn quite a lot in this area.

A source: http://www.ideibiznesa.org/otkrytie-banka.html

How to open a bank and how much money do you need?

How to open your bank: detailed step-by-step instructions

Ekaterinin Sergey is in touch. For some time he worked as the head of the credit department in a bank and eventually decided to open his own business. To begin with, I found a ready-made business plan of the bank, carefully studied it, analyzed the prospects and risks. We managed to find good investors and eventually implement the project.

Why do many entrepreneurs aim to open a bank? - It's very simple - they understand how profitable this event is. Opening such a business is a profitable business, but only with a competent approach and an initial investment.

This type of business is very profitable, but it is very difficult to enter it. It is necessary to make significant financial injections, the total amount of which can range from 100 million rubles or more. In addition, it is necessary to have good connections and rich experience in this field.

What is your bank?

It is a financial institution that provides a range of services to individuals and businesses (making payments, servicing credit and debit cards, processing deposits, and so on).

Control over the activities of the bank and regulation of intrabank processes is the task of the Central Bank.

Recently, commercial financial institutions have been very popular, providing a wide range of services - issuing loans, selling securities, opening (maintaining) accounts, and so on. But here it is worth conducting business planning in a commercial bank and clearly following the plan.

What should be the format?

Today, five types of banks can be distinguished - retail, settlement, market, credit and financial, the latter are more focused on interbank cooperation.

You have two options - choose one of the groups listed above, or create a universal financial institution combining several types of banks.

But keep in mind that the complex option is the most difficult to implement. To simplify the task, you can study the bank's business plan, an example, which is sure to be found on the network.

How to determine the legal basis?

It's no secret that you need a license when doing banking.

You will have to run around to sign a number of approvals, obtain licenses and incorporation documents.

What papers are required?

The list is very wide - licenses for banking operations, for working with precious metals, as well as for conducting depository activities.

In addition, you will need a permit from the State Customs Committee, which gives the right to act as a guarantor at customs, a registration certificate, which will make it possible to carry out transactions with precious metals, attract deposits, conduct operations with stones, and also act as a guarantor before customs authorities.

But that's not all. You must register with the tax office and receive your TIN. Costs for registration of licenses - from 200,000 rubles.

What services can the bank provide?

As soon as all the documents are on hand (licenses, certificates and certificates), you can proceed to the next item - the formation of services for your financial and credit organization.

To make it easier to decide, we will highlight the main services - settlements, opening and maintaining accounts, collection, settlement and cash services, money transfers, foreign exchange and depository operations, financial advice, lending, leasing, bank guarantees, and so on.

In addition, your bank can be engaged in money transfers, conducting operations on the stock exchange, executing orders of brokers and with traveller's checks, foreign currency transactions.

Where should the office be located?

To begin with, it is enough to open one office, but over time, at least 5-6 branches should appear in your city. In the course of business expansion, you can open branches throughout the country.

The optimal location of the bank is near transport interchanges, large retail outlets, markets.

For the main office, it is better to buy premises with an area of ​​100 square meters or more, make appropriate repairs, install the necessary equipment, organize workplaces, and so on.

Purchase and refurbishment costs - from 3 million rubles. At the initial stage, you can get by with a lease - from 2,000 rubles per square meter. To open branches, ordinary lease of premises with subsequent renovation is suitable.

Who to hire from the staff?

One of the most important and difficult issues is recruiting staff. For the first time, for cash settlements, you can take graduates of financial universities and admit them to work after completing an internship and training.

For more serious positions, it is desirable to hire people with work experience. You will need a manager (possibly a deputy), heads of bank departments (for work with clients, security service, credit department, and so on), specialists, 2-3 accountants, clerks, and so on.

At first, you can get by with 10-20 employees. Over time, the state will have to expand.

We must not forget that personnel must be trained, which will lead to additional costs - from 100,000 rubles per year.

The average salary of bank employees is from 20,000 rubles per month.

Table of the total number of banks by Federal Districts of Russia

What equipment is needed for the bank?

Opening a bank requires the purchase of specialized equipment - a currency detector, bill sorters, bill counters, payment terminals, cash register equipment, pos-terminals, and so on.

In addition, you will have to equip the workplace of each employee. Here you will need tables, computers, telephones, office supplies. Additional costs include certification of banking equipment, without which it is often impossible to make payment transactions and serve customers.

The total cost of purchasing and setting up equipment is from a million rubles.

Do you need advertising?

A business will not work without advertising. Your task is to form a positive opinion of a potential client, to make the name of the bank recognizable, to convince in reliability, and so on.

This may require organizing advertising in public transport, sticking leaflets, issuing special brochures, opening own offices in various cities of Russia, ordering advertising on radio and TV, creating a high-quality website on the network (required).

The advertising budget should be from 100,000 rubles per month.

Potential table of consumers of banking services in Russia

Where can I get the money?

Probably, the key question is where to get the required amount to implement your plans. Obtaining permits, renting an office, buying banking equipment, advertising costs, paying salaries to employees, maintaining banking equipment - all of this requires certain costs.

The main option is to attract investors to the project. But for this one cannot do without a clear business plan, understanding the structure of the business and optimizing business processes in the bank, the ability to prove the prospects of the project and present this information.

A fallback option is a bank loan. But this is possible only if you have expensive real estate behind your soul, which can act as collateral.

What additional services are required?

There should be guards in each department. Here you can run your own service or hire third-party representatives. Costs - from 50 thousand rubles per month.

There should be legal support - from 50 thousand rubles per month.

The security system is one of the most important points in the functioning of the bank - from 500 thousand rubles (video surveillance system, safes, turnstiles, and so on).

General summary

Let's summarize:

  • Initial opening costs - from 100 million rubles;
  • Registration of licenses - from 500 thousand rubles;
  • Security system - from 100,000 rubles;
  • Purchase of an office and re-equipment - from 3 million rubles;
  • Purchase of equipment for the head office and branches - from 1 million rubles;
  • Advertising - from 100,000 rubles per month;
  • Legal support - from 50,000 rubles per month;
  • Protection of objects - from 50,000 rubles per month;
  • Payment and training of personnel - from 400 thousand rubles per month;
  • The payback period is from one to five years.

What are the conclusions?

If you have a desire to open a business such as a bank, then be prepared for high costs and risks. But with the right organization, you can expect good income.

In any case, before opening a bank, it is necessary to conduct a market research, think over a business plan, make a forecast of possible changes in the financial and economic spheres.

Of course, any forecast is relative, because the banking sector directly depends on the political situation in the state, and this is already very difficult to predict.

A source: https://www.russtartup.ru/openbiz/kak-otkryt-bank-i-skolko-nuzhno-deneg.html

Banking structures are quite complex, but at the same time they represent a promising and highly profitable idea. Speaking about how to open your own bank, it should be noted that an entrepreneur must impose a baggage of knowledge in the chosen field and have a large start-up capital. Investments in the business will require large, so the best option is to attract investors to the business. You can also greatly simplify your work if you buy a ready-made bank, rather than open it from scratch. This approach will reduce the time spent on confirming all licenses, training and hiring personnel, and further settling. In general, a banking institution is a specific direction that is created by already experienced entrepreneurs and usually does not act as the main business.

Why is it worth opening your own bank, what is good in this area?

A bank is a financial institution that provides material support to citizens - loans, accepting various payments, issuing deposits, and so on.

Many entrepreneurs set themselves the goal of opening a bank, all because such an enterprise is not only commercially profitable, but also allows you to perform various operations for their own needs. Providing certain knowledge and experience, as well as having a good start-up capital, starting a business will not be a problem.

It is important to understand that it is very difficult to enter this area, but the efforts are paid off by the profit and a number of functions that the bank gives to its owner. To open, you will need capital in the amount of 100 million rubles, as well as the presence of good connections.

That is why most of the banks are held by experienced businessmen who have other projects that give good income.

Existing bank formats

One of the items on the list that you need to open a bank is the choice of the format. The banking sector is constantly expanding, accepting new entrepreneurs into its ranks. There are various directions:

  1. Market bank - all their activities are mainly aimed at maintaining relationships between banks. A large percentage of their assets consist of money received from other organizations. The direction of their activity is speculative finance, for example, securities.
  2. Credit institution - most of their assets are borrowed money. Their activity is the issuance of loans to the population and business.
  3. Settlement Bank - mainly engaged in customer service. They may not have a large customer base, just one big customer is enough.
  4. The retail organization is the largest banking industry. It is a universal organization, a collection of all forms of banking. Provide various services to the public and business.

How long does it take for the initial investment to pay off?

The payback period, in most cases, is influenced by the economic situation in the country and in each individual city. Even the most organized enterprise pays off in at least 5-10 years of stable work.

But for such a large-scale business - 5 years is considered an excellent payback period, which indicates the profitability of opening such a business. And even despite the high level of competition, opening small businesses may not be hampered by existing firms.

Which bank to open?

In the understanding of the population, a bank is a simple structure, but in fact the scale of existing formats is extensive and it is necessary to choose it before opening.

For example, there is the Central Bank, which cooperates with the government, helps to implement the stable operation of various small and medium-sized institutions.

The good thing about opening a commercial establishment is the opportunity to personally choose the appropriate format. Before opening a bank in Russia from scratch, you need to choose one of the directions:

  1. Universal enterprise - provides most of the existing services to the population and entrepreneurs (issues loans, accepts payments, draws up deposits, conducts various monetary transactions).
  2. Investment - its main task is to find projects in which you can invest with maximum benefit.
  3. Credit institution - specializes in the issuance of various loans, earnings in such organizations come from interest.
  4. A savings organization is considered the opposite of a credit institution, because money is not given out, but taken. Earning is the correct investment of funds.
  5. Market - work in one direction - securities.
  6. Interbank structures - provide for the establishment of relationships and links between various organizations.

Having chosen the format on which the bank will be built, you can proceed to the following points of the plan.

What services can be provided?

When drawing up a business plan, it is necessary to list all the services that the organization will provide. The main income will come from them.

You can open your bank in Russia and provide the following services:

  • Creation and further maintenance of accounts for individuals and legal entities.
  • Cash reception of various payments.
  • Making deposits, issuing loans.
  • Providing brokerage services.
  • Issuance of bank plastic cards by the client - in the future, their service will be required.
  • Money transfer service.
  • Opening and servicing clients' gold and foreign exchange accounts.
  • Consulting on various financial issues.

Based on the format of the bank, you can draw up your own list, which will be suitable for a certain choice. The final profit of the bank will depend on the quality and variety of services.

Business relevance

There are several reasons for the relevance of opening such a business:

  1. High income and profitability of the project - if you correctly approach the creation of a business, it will pay off in 5 years of work and increase the owner's income.
  2. Development prospects - banking services are constantly evolving, new services are being invented. Also, do not forget about the possible expansion, the creation of new branches.
  3. Prestige - an entrepreneur who owns a banking organization immediately receives a higher status, which affects his projects.
  4. A wide choice of directions - you can choose the target audience, the format of work, the list of services provided, and so on.

Market analysis

The description of the Russian banking market is as follows:

  • Almost half of the population annually takes out a loan for the purchase of housing, cars or equipment.
  • The market is filled with various offers, which indicates high competition.
  • About 30% of the population confirm that they make deposits to deposit accounts, buy shares and other securities.
  • Personal loan is one of the most popular services.
  • Bank deposits are considered one of the three safest ways to save money.
  • Many customers make purchases, pay for various services using non-cash payments.
  • In most cases, one person uses one card of the chosen bank, but 22% use two cards, and 5% use three or more.

Target audience characteristics

To open a bank, you need to know the portrait of the audience to which the advertising campaign will be directed and new proposals are being developed.

Typically, clients are individuals and legal entities. Portrait of the average bank's audience:

  1. Men and women aged 30-55.
  2. Usually middle-income.
  3. In terms of social status, these are workers, various company executives and ordinary employees.
  4. Psychological characteristics - orientation to family needs, organization, striving for comfort, pragmatism and collectivism.

Competitive advantages

Defeating the competition will require some kind of enticing advantage.

Business strengths can be:

  • Good company image, flattering customer reviews.
  • Favorable interest rates for loans.
  • A high percentage of charges on the deposit.
  • Famous shareholders, their reputation.
  • Balanced list of services.
  • The presence of a large client base.
  • Great service - courteous, patient consultants.
  • Availability of an individual approach.
  • Lack of queues in the department, uninterrupted operation of terminals and cash registers.
  • Good advertising campaign.
  • Thought-out and comfortable location of terminals and ATMs around the city.
  • Availability of a mobile application, Internet banking.
  • New services and features that competitors do not have.

Marketing plan

Talking about how to open your bank from scratch in Russia, one must not overlook such an important element as an advertising campaign. Strategy development should be entrusted to experienced professionals who know how to attract customers.

The objectives of an advertising campaign are as follows:

  1. Create a recognizable brand.
  2. Make potential customers believe in the reliability and quality of services.
  3. Then create an extensive client base.
  4. Create a positive impression of the newly opened establishment.

To do this, you can apply the following advertising moves:

  • Design a catchy, memorable logo and name.
  • Place outdoor advertising - signs, banners, billboards around the city.
  • Create your own website and start promoting it on the Internet.
  • Create bonus, discount programs for future clients.
  • Develop a mobile application for the convenience of users.
  • You can also sponsor various sporting and cultural events to make your brand recognizable.

Marketing needs to be developed from the very beginning of a project. The implementation of the plan will require an amount of 500,000 rubles, and after that it will be necessary to support it every month.

How to open your bank from scratch in Russia: step by step instructions

First of all, it is necessary to draw up a business plan, which will detail each event required for the opening. The opening algorithm should look something like this:

  • Market analysis, identification of competition in the city, drawing up a portrait of the target audience.
  • Study of all the necessary information - laws, regulations, the banking system as a whole.
  • Selection of the direction of the bank.
  • Drawing up a business project.
  • Selection of partners, search for investors.
  • Creation of LLC, development of the charter, choice of the size of the authorized capital.
  • Selection of premises for the main branch, search for locations for the installation of ATMs and terminals.
  • Repairing the premises.
  • Purchase and installation of equipment.
  • Selection of employees.
  • Advertising campaign.
  • Opening.

Required documents, licenses for opening

First of all, you need to register a business. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, it will be necessary to formalize a legal entity, therefore, the forms can be LLC, joint-stock company (public or non-public).

It is also necessary to indicate OKVED codes:

  • 19 - monetary intermediation.
  • 92 - provision of loans, credits, etc.

To create a bank, you will need to collect a package of documents, which includes:

  • Application to the registration authority.
  • Created charter of the organization.
  • Business plan.
  • Lease agreement or title deeds.
  • Receipt for payment of state duty (for LLC - 4000 rubles).
  • Constituent documents of the organization.
  • Minutes of the meeting of founders.
  • Documents confirming the capital of the founder.
  • Certificates for equipment and technology, premises diagram, security agreement.
  • A petition to the antimonopoly authority.
  • List and characteristics for each founder of the bank.

To obtain a license, you need to contact the Central Bank of Russia, the issued document will contain a list of services that the bank can provide.

The license may permit work with foreign banks, precious metals, various currencies and categories of individuals and legal entities. The document is drawn up within 6 months from the date of application.

When preparing all the papers, it is recommended to contact a law firm, which will quickly and efficiently collect them.

Room selection

An entrepreneur thinking about how to create a bank must understand what kind of premises and design he will need. To create such an enterprise, three main premises are needed - a head office, a bank branch and places for installing ATMs.

Criteria for choosing a head office:

  • Location in the city center.
  • The size of the room is not less than 150 square meters.
  • Possibility to hang a sign in a conspicuous place.
  • Location near transport interchange.
  • The presence of nearby parking, convenient access.
  • Shopping and entertainment centers, large supermarkets should be located in the neighborhood.

It is usually customary to buy out the main bank building, but it is better to rent the rest of the offices and branches.

It's also worth taking care of the design. The room should not have bright, annoying colors; it is better to decorate it in calm colors. Do not overdo it in the decoration of the departments; it is better to choose a minimal, restrained style. The layout of furniture should leave free space in the room for easy movement between departments. Each office had to be made in a common design so that the client felt the connection between them.

Necessary equipment

To fully equip the main office and branches, you will need to buy:

  • ATMs and terminals.
  • Bill counters.
  • Safes for documents and money.
  • Currency detectors.
  • Banknote wrappers.
  • Trolley for banknotes.
  • Computers.
  • Office equipment (telephone, fax, printer).
  • Furniture for employees and visitors (tables, chairs, benches, shelves and cabinets).
  • Equipment for cash collection, cash storage.
  • Video surveillance systems, fire safety.
  • Service transport.
  • Stationery.

Staff recruitment

The organizational structure of each bank is individual, depending on the number of branches, the format of the business, the issued license.

Employees to be hired must meet the following criteria:

  • Responsibility.
  • Good references from past jobs.
  • Friendliness, ability to establish contact with people.
  • Experience in a similar field.
  • Negotiation skills, basic persuasion skills.
  • Ability to behave calmly in emergency situations.
  • Strong-willed character.
  • Organizational, communication skills.
  • Higher education.
  • No criminal record.
  • Punctuality.
  • Striving to develop professionally.

In any state, you will need to hire:

  • Managers, their deputies.
  • Recruiting manager.
  • Heads for each existing department.
  • Chief accountant and his assistants.
  • Lawyer.
  • Senior cashier and regular cashiers in each branch.
  • Hotline operators.
  • Marketer.
  • Economist.
  • Financiers.
  • Credit experts.

The number of employees varies depending on the size of the enterprise and the number of departments.

How much does it cost to open a bank?

Initial investment in a business includes the following items:

  • Creation of the authorized capital - from 100 million rubles.
  • Registration of a license, all documents - 50 million rubles.
  • Purchase of equipment - 30 million rubles.
  • Purchase of intangible assets - 5-10 million rubles.
  • Head office building - 20 million rubles.
  • Renovation and design of offices - 5 million rubles.
  • Advertising campaign - 2 million rubles.
  • Additional expenses - 2 million rubles.

To open a bank, an initial investment of RUB 220,000,000 will be required. If it is planned to open banks throughout the country, then investments of several billion rubles are required.

Where to get start-up capital?

After realizing how much money is needed to open a bank, the question arises of where to get it. You can get capital in several ways:

  1. Personal savings are the main resource.
  2. Additional partners and investors can be attracted to the business.
  3. Bank loan registration - if there are guarantors and collateral is possible.

I think the best way is to attract personal funds to the business, but if they are not enough, then finding investors is a good option. For him, you will need to create a competent business plan with written benefits.

Bank income

On average, if there are 5 branches and a head office, the annual profit is about 100,000,000 rubles.

All branches must bring in monthly income of 15 million rubles or more of which half will be spent on covering regular expenses. Then the profitability of the project will remain at the level of 50%.

Potential risks

There are many risks involved in banking. The most popular of them are:

  1. Non-payment by borrowers of loans - a high probability of occurrence.
  2. Interest rate risk - arises from changes in interest rates on loans and deposits. The chance of occurrence is high.
  3. Unbalanced liquidity - occurs when the bank cannot pay off loans.
  4. Loss of customers, decrease in profits.
  5. Operational risk - arises from errors in conducting various operations.

Of course, if you have start-up capital and connections, it is quite easy to open your bank in Russia, but its success will depend on many factors. Starting from the personal qualities of a leader, ending with the political situation in the country. Before opening, it is necessary to conduct a market analysis, calculate all the risks, draw up a high-quality business plan and enlist partner and investor support.

Ekaterinin Sergey is in touch. For some time he worked as the head of the credit department in a bank and eventually decided to open his own business. To begin with, I found a ready-made business plan of the bank, carefully studied it, analyzed the prospects and risks. We managed to find good investors and eventually implement the project.

What is good about the banking business?

Why do many entrepreneurs aim to open a bank? - It's very simple - they understand how profitable this event is. Opening such a business is a profitable business, but only with a competent approach and an initial investment.

This type of business is very profitable, but it is very difficult to enter it. It is necessary to make significant financial injections, the total amount of which can range from 100 million rubles or more. In addition, it is necessary to have good connections and rich experience in this field.

What is your bank?

It is a financial institution that provides a range of services to individuals and businesses (making payments, servicing credit and debit cards, processing deposits, and so on).

Control over the activities of the bank and regulation of intrabank processes is the task of the Central Bank.

Recently, commercial financial institutions have been very popular, providing a wide range of services - issuing loans, selling securities, opening (maintaining) accounts, and so on. But here it is worth conducting business planning in a commercial bank and clearly following the plan.

What should be the format?

Today, five types of banks can be distinguished - retail, settlement, market, credit and financial, the latter are more focused on interbank cooperation.

You have two options - choose one of the groups listed above, or create a universal financial institution combining several types of banks.

But keep in mind that the complex option is the most difficult to implement. To simplify the task, you can study the bank's business plan, an example, which is sure to be found on the network.

How to determine the legal basis?

It's no secret that you need a license when doing banking.

You will have to run around to sign a number of approvals, obtain licenses and incorporation documents.

What papers are required?

The list is very wide - licenses for banking operations, for working with precious metals, as well as for conducting depository activities.

In addition, you will need a permit from the State Customs Committee, which gives the right to act as a guarantor at customs, a registration certificate, which will make it possible to carry out transactions with precious metals, attract deposits, conduct operations with stones, and also act as a guarantor before customs authorities.

But that's not all. You must register with the tax office and receive your TIN. Costs for registration of licenses - from 200,000 rubles.

What services can the bank provide?

As soon as all the documents are on hand (licenses, certificates and certificates), you can proceed to the next item - the formation of services for your financial and credit organization.

To make it easier to decide, we will highlight the main services - settlements, opening and maintaining accounts, collection, settlement and cash services, money transfers, foreign exchange and depository operations, financial advice, lending, leasing, bank guarantees, and so on.

In addition, your bank can be engaged in money transfers, conducting operations on the stock exchange, executing orders of brokers and with traveller's checks, foreign currency transactions.

Where should the office be located?

To begin with, it is enough to open one office, but over time, at least 5-6 branches should appear in your city. In the course of business expansion, you can open branches throughout the country.

The optimal location of the bank is near transport interchanges, large retail outlets, markets.

For the main office, it is better to buy premises with an area of ​​100 square meters or more, make appropriate repairs, install the necessary equipment, organize workplaces, and so on.

Purchase and refurbishment costs - from 3 million rubles. At the initial stage, you can get by with a lease - from 2,000 rubles per square meter. To open branches, ordinary lease of premises with subsequent renovation is suitable.

Who to hire from the staff?

One of the most important and difficult issues is recruiting staff. For the first time, for cash settlements, you can take graduates of financial universities and admit them to work after completing an internship and training.

For more serious positions, it is desirable to hire people with work experience. You will need a manager (possibly a deputy), heads of bank departments (for work with clients, security service, credit department, and so on), specialists, 2-3 accountants, clerks, and so on.

At first, you can get by with 10-20 employees. Over time, the state will have to expand.

We must not forget that personnel must be trained, which will lead to additional costs - from 100,000 rubles per year.

The average salary of bank employees is from 20,000 rubles per month.

The total number of banks by Federal Districts of Russia

Table of the total number of banks by Federal Districts of Russia

What equipment is needed for the bank?

Opening a bank requires the purchase of specialized equipment - a currency detector, bill sorters, bill counters, payment terminals, cash register equipment, pos-terminals, and so on.

In addition, you will have to equip the workplace of each employee. Here you will need tables, computers, telephones, office supplies. Additional costs include certification of banking equipment, without which it is often impossible to make payment transactions and serve customers.

The total cost of purchasing and setting up equipment is from a million rubles.

Do you need advertising?

A business will not work without advertising. Your task is to form a positive opinion of a potential client, to make the name of the bank recognizable, to convince in reliability, and so on.

This may require organizing advertising in public transport, sticking leaflets, issuing special brochures, opening own offices in various cities of Russia, ordering advertising on radio and TV, creating a high-quality website on the network (required).

The advertising budget should be from 100,000 rubles per month.

Potential of consumers of banking services in Russia

Potential table of consumers of banking services in Russia

Where can I get the money?

Probably, the key question is where to get the required amount to implement your plans. Obtaining permits, renting an office, buying banking equipment, advertising costs, paying salaries to employees, maintaining banking equipment - all of this requires certain costs.

The main option is to attract investors to the project. But for this one cannot do without a clear business plan, understanding the structure of the business and optimizing business processes in the bank, the ability to prove the prospects of the project and present this information.

A fallback option is a bank loan. But this is possible only if you have expensive real estate behind your soul, which can act as collateral.

Video interview with Ivan Svitek, Chairman of the Board of Home Credit Bank

What additional services are required?

There should be guards in each department. Here you can run your own service or hire third-party representatives. Costs - from 50 thousand rubles per month.

There should be legal support - from 50 thousand rubles per month.

The security system is one of the most important points in the functioning of the bank - from 500 thousand rubles (video surveillance system, safes, turnstiles, and so on).

General summary

Let's summarize:

  • Initial opening costs - from 100 million rubles;
  • Registration of licenses - from 500 thousand rubles;
  • Security system - from 100,000 rubles;
  • Purchase of an office and re-equipment - from 3 million rubles;
  • Purchase of equipment for the head office and branches - from 1 million rubles;
  • Advertising - from 100,000 rubles per month;
  • Legal support - from 50,000 rubles per month;
  • Protection of objects - from 50,000 rubles per month;
  • Payment and training of personnel - from 400 thousand rubles per month;
  • The payback period is from one to five years.

What are the conclusions?

If you have a desire to open a business such as a bank, then be prepared for high costs and risks. But with the right organization, you can expect good income.

In any case, before opening a bank, it is necessary to conduct a market research, think over a business plan, make a forecast of possible changes in the financial and economic spheres.

Of course, any forecast is relative, because the banking sector directly depends on the political situation in the state, and this is already very difficult to predict.

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How to open your bank: detailed step-by-step instructions

own businessThe banking sector is by no means simple, but despite this fact, it is very profitable and attractive. The main limitation is the presence of significant work experience and specialized knowledge, as well as the huge size of the investment.

A close examination of the peculiarities of the Russian legislative sphere leads to the conclusion that a simpler and faster option is to acquire a ready-made and working bank than to open a new one, which requires obtaining all the necessary permits.

Format options

Currently, the range of banking services is very popular, which attracts more and more new entrepreneurs in this area. Before starting to open your own institution, you need to decide what direction it will have:

  • Market banks, the main activity of which consists of establishing and maintaining interbank relations. Most of their assets consist of finance attracted from other credit institutions. They are based on speculative finance, such as securities.
  • В credit institution, based on its name, the bulk of the asset consists precisely of borrowed funds.
  • Estimated the bank practices service for its clients (by the way, they do not need to have a lot of clientele, often just one, but large one is enough).
  • The largest group is retail organizations. They are engaged in the provision of various services in the field of finance, combine the features of each other and therefore are the most versatile and versatile.

You can watch an interesting interview about the organization of such an activity with its owner in the following video:

Required documents and the procedure for obtaining them

paperworkSo, first you need to register a business entity. The standard form here is a joint stock company (open or closed - no legislative restrictions have been established). In accordance with the OKPD 2 classifier, banking sounds like “financial services, except for insurance and pension services”.

After the completion of registration manipulations, information about the bank and its full name should be generated, and then the information should be sent to Main territorial administration (each region has its own). Until this department hands over a signed agreement to the newly minted entrepreneur, there is no point in applying for a license.

This stage assumes the availability of sufficient authorized capital for payment, since the Main Territorial Administration will definitely check this.

Also, upon receipt of approval, the financial history of the organization as a whole and each of its founders separately will be checked. And if at least one of the founders decides to hide information about any of their financial transactions, then the possibility of opening will be ruined in the bud.

activity of the companyNow a little about the authorized capital. Need to have 300 million rubles free funds at the time of obtaining a license. By the way, the amount has been increased recently and quite significantly, before the authorized capital required “only” 180 million.

After the GTU completes its inspection, it is necessary to ensure the transfer of information about the newly opened institution to central bank , where each submitted document will be checked equally carefully. The final inspection authority is Banking Supervision Committee ... It depends on the decision of this structure whether a new commercial organization will open or not.

If the decision is positive, then the information about the bank is transferred to the next control body - the tax inspectorate, which is responsible for entering it into the register of credit institutions.

From this moment, the institution has only 1 month to deposit the authorized capital into the account.

The initial standard mandatory package of documents for registration includes the following items:

  • Statement.
  • List of constituent documents.
  • A carefully written business plan.
  • Minutes confirming that the founders held a general meeting.
  • A document confirming the payment of state duties.
  • Copies of documents confirming that the founders have passed state registration.
  • Application forms of candidates for managerial positions: director, chief accountant and their deputies.
  • An auditor's report that the financial statements are reliable.
  • A package of documents required for a credit institution to be able to obtain an opinion that it complies with a number of established requirements when conducting cash transactions.
  • A document issued by the FAS (Federal Antimonopoly Service) and confirming a positive response to the application for consent to the establishment of the institution.
  • Full list of founders on paper.

Possible range of services

The strategic goal of the bank and each of its services is to increase income, which can be achieved in several ways:

  • Attracting customers.
  • Expansion of the sales market for services.
  • Increasing market share.

At the moment, the level of competition in the banking market is quite high, therefore, in order to maintain a balance in the organization, a kind of department store must be formed that can provide a client with a full range of services.

The main types of banking services:

  • Consulting ... A bank employee must necessarily understand such issues as investments, securities, tax returns, be able to bring information in an accessible form to the client. If the client is a legal entity, then he may need a credit check of a new counterparty or assistance in analyzing marketing opportunities in markets of various sizes - both nationally and globally.
  • Cash flow management : the bank collects payments, makes payments to firms and invests excess cash in the purchase of short-term securities until the client begins to feel the need for them.
  • Providing brokerage services when carrying out transactions involving securities.
  • Implementation of investment services ... For example, underwriting, which is a guaranteed placement or purchase of new securities from issuers. Moreover, the purpose of such an acquisition is their subsequent resale to another buyer and income.
  • Insurance ... For a long time, banks have been providing credit life insurance for the client, which guarantees him the repayment of the loan given in case he dies or falls ill. Actions to provide an insurance policy are carried out through joint ventures or by signing a franchise agreement, which gives the insurance company the right to open a kiosk selling policies on the territory of a credit institution.
  • A range of financial services, which in turn consist of trust, leasing and factoring operations ... The type of service directly depends on the type of client.

company building

About suitable premises and necessary equipment

The bank cannot be called an ordinary office, although it seems to be such at first glance. It performs several important functions:

  • Customer and visitor service.
  • Cash transactions.
  • Storage of a significant cash and material reserve.

This results in a number of specific features that must be taken into account during the construction, reconstruction or renovation of bank premises.

So, when drawing up a project, you need to pay special attention to external and internal decoration (the fundamental factor is the corporate style), layout (it is necessary to have a convenient client area and a functional back office) and technical strength in accordance with a number of regulatory requirements (protection means and an integrated system, providing security).

The main feature of construction is the requirement for mandatory equipment with engineering and technical means, the main purpose of which is protection and safety. The following institutions have their own requirements for bank premises: the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the fire inspectorate and Rospotrebnadzor.

In general, design and construction can only be entrusted to experienced organizations with a staff of qualified specialists.

signing a contractThe activities of the institution are connected with the processing of large amounts of cash on a daily basis, therefore, specialized equipment will be very useful. It allows you to count money, sort it according to its denomination, and even verify its authenticity. It is possible to purchase both several separate instruments and one multifunctional unit that can cope with each of the above tasks.

Of course, you can't do without an ATM. By the way, it is desirable that he was far from alone and located in a walkable place or in a department.

Staff

Working in a bank is a very responsible occupation that requires compliance with criteria such as focus and quality. Therefore, the selection of personnel requires close attention, especially when it comes to leadership positions. Only a qualified leader can ensure the efficient operation of the company.

employees of the enterpriseThe organizational structure of the institution is determined by the charter, which should set out information about the management bodies, the powers granted to them, the responsibilities assigned and the relationship in carrying out operations of a financial nature.

The highest level of management is General Meeting of Shareholders ... Its convocation must be carried out at least once a year, and an extraordinary meeting can be held at any time, if required by the founders, the board of directors, the audit commission or a shareholder. The main tasks of the board include: operational management of banking activities, approval of the regulations on the structural unit, representative office or branch of the institution, as well as resolving issues on the selection and placement of personnel.

The organizational structure should include a number of divisions that fulfill their functional purpose:

  • credit and audit departments , each of which deals with general issues: the first - the development of credit policy, the second - an external review and assessment of the organization's activities;
  • planning department , the main tasks of which are: the organization of commercial activities, control of such important indicators as liquidity and profitability, economic analysis and study of the client's solvency, as well as marketing and public relations;
  • deposit operations management : acceptance and delivery of deposits, issue and placement of securities;
  • credit management : implementation of short-term and long-term lending, carrying out non-traditional banking operations, for example, leasing, factoring, etc .;
  • international operations management : foreign currency deposits, the provision of a foreign currency loan, etc .;
  • accounting and operational management , consisting of an operational, settlement department and a department dealing with cash operations.

Staff functions should be performed by the administrative, economic, legal department, personnel department and accounting department.

Required costs and possible sources

project costsExperts considered that opening your own bank would require at least 300 million rubles ... In addition, almost 200 million will be spent on organizing offices, a security system and hiring the necessary staff.

The institution's own funds allow maintaining its stability. At the time of opening, they are necessary to cover the primary costs: land, premises, equipment, wages. In the future, investments in long-term assets are made at the expense of their own funds.

The organization's own funds consist of:

  • from the authorized capital;
  • from the reserve and special fund;
  • from insurance reserves;
  • from additional capital;
  • from the unallocated profit during the year.

The funds that form the basis of the bank's resources are contributed by legal entities and individuals - participants (shareholders or shareholders).

Payback period

company revenuesThe financial situation in the city greatly affects the profitability and payback of an institution, but any carefully organized bank pays off in 5-10 years .

The level of competition in this area is very high, but even the presence of a large number of large organizations does not impede the development of small ones. Due to the fact that they provide completely different services, the population is in need of both one and the other.

In addition, it is often a necessity to open your own establishment, for example when it acts as a subsidiary helping to serve the main company. In general, this is a profitable investment, because with such a scale of the project, 5 years is a good indicator of payback.

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